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2.5 The Structure of the Atom -- Part 2
The group 1A tends to lose one electron and form 1+ ion.
The 2A alkaline earth metals lose two electrons and form ionized particles.
The group 7A tends to have one electron and one ion.
The oxygen family nonmetals form 2- ion when they gain two electrons.
The charge is equal to the group number for main-group elements that form cations with predictable charge.
The charge is equal to the group number minus eight for main-group elements that form anions with predictable charge.
Transition elements can form different ion with different charges.
Predict the charges of the monoatomic ion formed by the main-group elements.
A cation with the same number of electrons as the nearest noble gas is formed when aluminum loses electrons.
The nearest noble gas is neon, which has 10 electrons.
The aluminum loses three electrons to form a cation.
Sulfur forms an anion with the same number of electrons as the nearest noble gas.
The nearest noble gas is argon, which has 18 electrons.
Sulfur gains two electrons to form an anion.
Predict the charges of the monoatomic ion.
If we take the number of atoms into account, hydrogen comes in first, with oxygen second and carbon third.
All atoms of an element have the same mass, which is an important part of the atomic theory.
In Section 2.6, we learned that the atoms Atomic mass is sometimes called a given element because of its different mass.
The atomic mass of chlorine is listed in the periodic table.
The atomic mass of chlorine is close to 35.
For users of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, an atomic mass value of 1fraction of isotope 1 is needed.
When we use percentages in a characteristic mass to each element, we can convert them to their decimal value by dividing by 100.
Cu is divided by 100 into fractions.
The Atomic mass is calculated using the equation given in the text.
Gallium has two naturally occurring isotopes, Ga 69 and Ga 71.
The mass of Ga-71 can be found using the atomic mass of gallium.
There are two naturally occurring isotopes in carbon: C-12 and C-13.
Determine which mass is closest to the atomic mass of carbon.
An electrical signal is injected.
The atoms are ionized by an electron beam, which converts the electrons in the beam to positively charged ionized atoms.
The ion are protected by the magnetic field.
The heavier the ion, the less magnetic the field is.
The amount of bending depends on the mass.
The mass of the isotope is shown on the axis.
The relative abundance of the isotope is shown by the height of the peak.
It is possible to determine the percent most intense.
It must be made to be 100%.
Mass spectrometry can also be used to determine the atomic mass of a molecule.
The lower bound for the atomic mass of oxygen was published by IUPAC at the beginning of 2011.
For the first time, the upper bound comes from a single atomic mass for each element, instead of precipitation.
The upper and lower values that apply to most samples found on Earth can be found in the atomic mass.
The changes were necessary because Earth is plus or minus one in the last digit.
The upper and lower bounds for composition are not constant from one sample to another because the atomic mass of several elements are throughout the periodic tables.
There are elements in which variation occurs.
For more information on the composition of a sample of an element, see IUPAC.
The mass of the molecule can be represented as a whole.
A mass spectrum is like a molecule's fingerprints because the fragments that form upon ionising are specific to the molecule.
Mass spectroscopy can be used to find out how much of a molecule is present in a sample.
Mass spectrometry has been used to detect compounds in meteorites that may be evidence of life outside of our planet.
Most scientists think that the carbon compounds in meteorites formed in the same way as the first organic molecule on Earth.
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