Native Americans saw settlements grow into unstoppable beachheads of vast new populations and that the land became something else entirely.
colonial societies developed in the 17th century.
The North American mainland was a small and marginal place in that broad empire, as the output of its most prosperous colonies paled before the Caribbean sugar islands.
Many imperial officials ignored the colonial backwaters on the North American mainland, but they were still tied into the larger Atlantic networks.
The continents of Europe, Africa, and the Americas were connected by the Atlantic World.
The lives of American colonists were influenced by events across the ocean.
Civil war, religious conflict, and nation building transformed Britain and made societies on both sides of the ocean.
At the same time, colonial settlements developed into powerful societies that could fight against Native Americans.
Patterns and systems established during the colonial era would continue to shape American society for hundreds of years.
The institution of slavery would be brutal and destructive.
Reverend Francis Le Jau was a missionary in Charles Town, Carolina, in 1706.
He met Indians who traveled south to enslave enemy villages, as well as Africans who were ravaged by the Middle Passage.
He was surrounded by slavery and death.
The English were Le Jau's strongest complaint.
The turning point for black men and women in colonies like Virginia in North America and the West Indies occurred in the 1660s.
Legal sanction was given to the enslavement of people of African descent.
The maintenance of strict racial barriers can be achieved through the permanent deprivation of freedom and separate legal status of enslaved Africans.
Modern classifications of racial hierarchy were not directly pointed toward by seventeenth-century racial thought.
The master of a slave ship in 1694 did not justify his work with any creed: "I can't think of any intrinsic value in one color more than another, nor that white is better than black, only we think it so because we are so."
The only reason thatPhillips needed was the profitability of slavery.
Wars were the most common way to acquire Native American slaves.
European legal thought held that enslaving prisoners of war was more humane than killing them.
Hundreds of North American Indians were sold into slavery in the West Indies after the Pequot War.
The Governor Kieft's War and the two Esopus Wars were fought by the Dutch in New Netherland and New York.
King Philip's War resulted in the capture of a larger number of Indian slaves.
The Indians were bound and shipped to slavery.
The Barbados Assembly refused to import the New England Indians because they were afraid they would encourage rebellion.
The wars in Florida, South Carolina, and the Mississippi Valley produced more Indian slaves.
Some wars were created as a result of contests between Indians and colonists for land.
Slave traders were involved in some of the illegal raids.
Between 24,000 and 51,000 Native Americans were forced into slavery in the southern colonies between 1670 and 1755, and many of them were exported to other ports in the British Atlantic.
The violence inherent in the Indian slave trade made it difficult for the English to claim land in frontier territories.
By the 18th century, colonial governments discouraged the practice as long as slavery was a legal institution.
Most Native American slaves died from disease, but others were murdered or died from starvation.
The slave trade provided a reliable labor force for growing plantation economies.
The Middle Passage is where European slavers transported millions of Africans.
Some slaves committed suicide because of the 57 tion.
Alexander Falconbridge, a slave ship surgeon, described the sufferings of slaves from shipboard infections and close quarters in the hold.
captives were left lying in pools of excrement.
Slaves were chained in small spaces in the hold and could lose a lot of their skin and flesh from being hit by metal and timber.
Rapes, whippings, and diseases were detailed in other sources.
The Middle Passage was an important part of the maritime trade in sugar and other semifinished American goods, manufactured European commodities, and African slaves.
The middle leg of the journeys from Africa to the Americas was the Middle Passage.
An overland journey from Africa to a coastal slave-trading factory was the first.
The Brookes print still shows enslaved Africans chained in rows using leg shackles, despite the fact that it was printed after the Slave Trade Act of 1787.
The Brookes was allowed to carry up to 454 slaves, with each man getting 5 feet 10 inches and each woman getting 1 foot 4 inches.
Acculturation and transportation to the American mine, plantation, or other location where slaves were forced to labor was third.
The cultures of the Americas were impacted by the Middle Passage.
As part of the slave trade, many foods associated with Africans were imported to West Africa and then adopted by African cooks before being brought to the Americas.
Today's West African rhythms and melodies can be found in a variety of forms, from religious spirituals to synthesized drumbeats.
The basket making and language of the Gullah people on the Carolina coastal islands are influenced by African influences.
Between eleven and twelve million Africans were forced across the Atlantic between the 16th and 19th century, with two million deaths at sea and an additional million dying in the trade's overland African leg.
The Catalans and Aragonese were brought into contact with sugar and slaves in the 14th and 15th century.
The first steps toward an Atlantic slave trade were taken by Europeans when Portuguese sailors landed in West Africa in search of gold, spices, and allies against the Muslims who dominated Mediterranean trade.
African slaves were carried to Portugal by ship captains.
European expansion into the Americas introduced both settlers and European authorities to a new situation--an abundance of land and a scarcity of labor.
Africans were forced to America by Portuguese, Dutch, and English ships.
The western coast of Africa, the Gulf of Guinea, and the westcentral coast were the sources of African captives.
The war of expansion and raiding produced captives who could be sold in coastal factories.
African slave traders bartered for European finished goods such as beads, cloth, rum, firearms, and metal wares.
Slaves were sea soned in places like Barbados when Slavers landed in the British West Indies.
The leading entry point for slaves on the mainland was Charleston, South Carolina.
Elmina Castle was established as a trade settlement by the Portuguese in the 15th century and was the first trading post built on the Gulf of Guinea.
One of the largest and most important markets for African slaves along the Atlantic slave trade was the fort.
The castle of Elmina can be seen from the river.
The Spanish king issued a decree in 1693 that granted freedom to slaves fleeing the English colonies if they converted to Catholicism and swore an oath of loyalty to Spain.
About 450,000 Africans landed in British North America, a relatively small portion of the eleven to twelve million victims of the trade.
The natural reproduction of slaves on the North American continent was aided by the fact that African women had more children than their counterparts in the Caribbean or South America.
Modern notions of race were related to the slave trade in the Americas.