Latin America's vulnerable commodities economies were hit hard by the Great Depression.
As Europe and the United States raised tariffs to protect domestic products, prices and exports of Latin American commodities collapsed.
Latin American countries were unable to buy industrial goods from abroad because of the downturn in foreign sales.
After the global depression, governments began to gain control of their own economies and natural resources.
The efforts did not bring an end to the depression.
Some dictatorships in Latin America were modeled after Euro pean Fascist lines.
The Great Depression was the turning point in the development of African nationalism.
It was the first time that unemployment was common among educated Africans.
The nature and pace of globaliza areas resulted in unprecedented mass protest.
In Europe in the 1920s and 1930s, there were both conservative and radical dictatorships.
They were profoundly different in their character and practice.
Conservative authoritarian regimes were joined by new and frightening dictatorships.
In world history, the traditional form of antidemocratic government was conservative.
Like Russia's tsars and China's emperors, the leaders of such governments relied on bureaucracy, police, and the military to control society.
They suppressed political opposition and forbade popular participation in government.
They didn't have the desire to control many aspects of their subjects' lives.
The people had a lot of personal independence if they didn't try to change the system.
In Latin America and the eastern part of Europe, authoritarianism returned after the First World War.
Conservatives took over in Spain and Portugal.
There were many reasons for this development.
Many of the new states were torn by ethnic conflicts and lacked strong traditions of self-government.
Dictatorship appealed to nationalists and military leaders as a way to maintain national unity.
The church and large landowners were still powerful forces in these areas, and they often looked to dictators to save them from progressive land reform or Communist agrarian upheaval.
Although some of the conservative authoritarian regimes adopted certain Fascist characteristics in the 1930s, they were more concerned with maintaining the status quo.
A new kind of dictatorship emerged in the Soviet Union, Ger many, and Italy by the mid-1930s.
The dictatorships violently rejected liberal values and exercised unprecedented control over the people.
A dictator from 1914-1918.
In World War I, the tendency was to subordinate al insti- ship that exercises complete political tutions and all classes to the state in order to achieve one supreme objective: victory.
The Stalinist Soviet Union had a modern totalitarian state that reached maturity in the 1930s.
These and other states used modern technology to exercise complete political power and control over society.
It could be a crime to deviate from the norm.
Modern totalitarianism was not based on maintaining the existing social order but on people who had become engaged in the political process for change, most notably through commitment to nationalism and socialism.
The societies were moving toward a goal.
One goal came at the leader's command.
Totali tarianism was an unfinished revolution in which rapid, profound change was imposed from above.
Soviet communism wanted to level society by crushing the middle classes and seized private property for the state.
The middle classes survived because the Communists did not try to nationalize private property.
The aim of the Soviet Communists was to unite the workers of the world.
Fascist leaders wanted to change state and society on a national level.
The Orthodox Marxist Communists argued that the Fascists were powerful capitalists who wanted to destroy the revolutionary leader and the working class in order to protect their enormous profits.
European Fascist movements had many characteristics, including extreme national ism, an anti-working-class movement, a charismatic leader, and glorification of war and the military.
The masters of propa ganda and terror were Hitler and Stalin.
Fascists in Germany embraced racial homogeneity, which led to the Holocaust.
Most scholars don't agree with the label of a Fascist society.
Joseph Stalin, a master of political infighting, consolidated his power in the mid-1920s.
The goal of Stalin and the Communist Party was to mod used constant propaganda, enormous sacrifice, and unlimited violence and state control in order to create a communist society in the 1930s.
The civil war was over by the spring of 1921, but the Bolsheviks ruled the land.
In the face of social and economic chaos, he changed course.
The 1921 policy was re-establishing limited economic freedom in an attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry.
Railroads, banks, and heavy industry remained apart.