What factors increase the chance of liking one another is studied by social psychologists.
A large amount of research shows that we like others who are similar to us and who return our positive feelings.
The three factors are often referred to as similarity, proximity, and reciprocal liking.
According to psychological research, we are drawn to people who are similar to us, those who share our attitudes, and interests.
Nearness means proximity.
The mere-exposure effect suggests that the more exposure one has to another person, the more they like that person.
By talking to someone, you can identify the similarities that will draw the pair closer together.
It's not enjoyable to like someone who hates you.
The more people like you, the more you like that person.
People are attracted to other people who are attractive.
Being nice-looking extends well beyond the realm of attraction.
Good-looking people are seen as having more positive attributes such as better personality and better job competence.
The concept of love has been studied by psychologists.
The subject of love has proven difficult to explain, as research shows that the emotion of love qualitatively differs from liking and a number of theories about love have been proposed.
Self-disclosure is a term used in liking and loving studies.
A person self-discloses when they share a piece of personal information with another person.
A process of self-disclosure can be used to build close relationships with friends and lovers.
On the path to intimacy, one person shares a detail of his or her life and the other exposes a facet of his or her own.
In social psychology, how an individual's behavior can be affected by another person's actions or presence is a major area of research.
People perform tasks better in front of an audience than they do alone, according to a number of studies.
They run faster, yell louder, and reel in a fishing rod quicker.
The presence of others improves task performance.
Being watched by others hurt performance when a task is difficult rather than a simple, well-practiced skill, as found in later studies.
Conformity has been studied a lot.
Conformity is the tendency of people to agree with others.
One of the most interesting conformity experiments was conducted by Solomon Asch.
Participants were brought into a room of confederates and asked to make simple perceptual judgments.
The participants were shown three vertical lines of different sizes and were asked if they were the same length as a different target line.
The last person to speak was the member of the group who gave their answers.
There was a clear answer in all of the trials.
All of the confederates gave the same incorrect judgement on some of them.
Asch wanted to know what the participants would do.
When the confederates gave incorrect answers, the participants conformed.
70 percent of the participants conformed to at least one of the trials.
Studies show that when a group's opinion is unanimous, conformity is most likely to occur.
Studies have shown that groups larger than three do not increase the tendency to conform.
Conformity involves following a group without being explicitly told to do so, but obedience studies focus on participants willingness to do what another asks them to do.
The classic obedience studies were conducted by Stanley Milgram.
He told his participants that they were taking part in a study about teaching and learning and that they were assigned to play the part of a teacher.
The learner was a Confederate.
Each participant's job was to shock the learner with an electric shock when they were wrong.
The participant sat behind a panel of buttons that were labeled with the number of volts, starting at 15 and increasing by 15 up to 450.
The levels of shock were described in different ways.
The confederate pretended to be shocked in reality.
The confederate screamed in pain and said he had a heart condition as the shocks increased.
He wanted to know how far participants would go before they stopped delivering shocks.
Over 60 percent of the participants obeyed the experimenter and delivered all the possible shocks.
There were a number of interesting twists in the study.
He was able to decrease participants' compliance by getting them closer to the confederates.
People who could see the learners gave less shocks than people who could only hear them.
Participants had to force the learner's hand onto the shock plate to administer the lowest shock rates.
In that last condition, 30 percent of the shocks were delivered.
When the experimenter left in the middle of the experiment and was replaced by an assistant, there was a decrease in obedience.
The percentage of participants who quit in the middle of the experiment went up when other confederates objected to the shocks.
The final note about the experiment bears mentioning.
It would not receive the approval of an IRB today because it has been criticized on ethical grounds.
Many participants learned that if the shocks were real, they would have killed the learner.
Some people were profoundly disturbed by this insight.
We are all in different groups.
The lawyers at a particular firm are a group, the students in your school are a group, and the baseball team is a group.
Some groups exert more pressure on their members than others.
Rules about how group members should act are in all groups.
The lawyers at the firm may have rules governing work dress.
Specific roles are often within groups.
There are different roles for players on a baseball team.
People take advantage of being part of a group.
Social loafing occurs when individuals don't put in as much effort when acting in a group as they do when acting alone.
One explanation for the effect is that an individual's efforts are more visible if they are alone.
A person may be less motivated to perform when they are part of a group.
Being part of a group may encourage members to take advantage of the group effort without taxing themselves unnecessarily.
Group polarization is the tendency of a group to make more extreme decisions than individual members.
Studies about group polarization usually have participants give their opinions individually, then group them to discuss their decisions, and then have the group make a decision.
The idea that people in a group may be exposed to new, persuasive arguments they had not thought of themselves and that the responsibility for an extreme decision in a group is spread across the group's many members is one of the explanations for group polarization.
Groupthink is a term that describes the tendency for some groups to make bad decisions.
Group members suppress their reservations about the group's ideas.
A false unanimity is encouraged and flaws in the group's decisions may be overlooked.
Highly cohesive groups are at particular risk for groupthink.
Sometimes people are swept up by a group and do things they wouldn't have done on their own.
This loss of self-restraint occurs when group members feel aroused and anonymous.
Phillip Zimbardo's prison experiment showed how such conditions can cause people to deviduate but also the effect of roles and the situation in general.
A group of students were assigned to play the roles of a prison guard or prisoner.
The prisoners were assigned numbers and all were dressed in uniforms.
The prisoners were locked up in the basement of the psychology building and the guards were in charge of their treatment.
The experiment had to be ended early because of the cruel treatment the guards were giving the prisoners, and the students took to their assigned roles too well.
Five suggested answers or completions are followed by each of the questions or incomplete statements.
Pick the one that is the best.
On Monday, she asked her teacher to delay the test until Friday.
After her teacher refused, she asked the teacher to push the test back one day.
During the first week of school, your social studies teacher says that your new neighbor knows a lot about ancient Greece.
She might have learned about ancient Greece in her old school.
The color orange has always been hated by Janine.
She began to wear orange clothing when she was a student at Princeton.
Pasquale's performance in the orchestra concert was worse than when he practiced at home.
Megan told Francisco that she still loves to watch Rugrats.
He told her that he still cries when he watches the movie.
On the first day of class, Mr. Simpson divides his class into four groups.
On the fifth day of school, Jody was sent to the principal for kicking members of the other groups.
Many social psychology experiments use confederates.
Confederates are people who work with the experimenter.