ChAPTER 31 -- Part 7: Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman
Wealthy Chinese spent increasing amounts of China's wealth to support their opium habits.
Opium dens and vil lages of the empire spread at an alarming rate.
1 percent of China's 400 million people were addicted to the drug by the year 1836.
Strung-out officials neglected their administrative responsibilities, the sons of prominent scholar-gentry families lost their ambition, and even laborers and peasants abandoned their work for the pleasures of the opium dens.
The opium trade had to be stopped by the beginning of the 19th century.
opium dealers were only driven from Canton to nearby islands and other hid trade in southern China when serious efforts were made to stamp out opium in the early 1820s.
He was sent into exile after being rejected in opium.
European merchants were enraged by these actions and demanded military action to avenge their losses.
The British ordered the Chinese to stop their anti-opium campaign or risk military intervention, because they said Lin's measures violated both the property rights of the mer chants and principles of free trade.
The war broke out in the late 19th century.
The Chinese were routed first on the sea, where their war junks were no match for British gunboats.
They were defeated in their attempts to repel the Brit ish.
Lin was sent to exile in a remote province of the empire after British warships and armies threatened the cities of the Yangzi River region.
The European powers were able to force China to open trade and diplomatic exchanges because of their victories in the Opium War.
Hong Kong was established as an additional center of British commerce after the first war.
Europeans were given land to build more warehouses and living quarters at five other ports.
More than 300,000 European and American traders, missionaries, and diplomats were able to call 90 ports of call by the 1890s.
Britain, France, Germany, and Russia won long-term leases of several ports.
These areas were considered to be colonial enclaves.
They were guarded by foreign troops and run by Western or Japanese merchant councils.
The opium trade was not mentioned in the treaty of 1842.
British officials were in charge of China's foreign trade and customs by the 19th century.
They were careful to make sure that European nationals favored access to China's markets and that no protective tariffs, such as those the Americans were using at the time to protect their young industries, were established by the Chinese.
The Chinese were humiliated when they were forced to accept European ambassadors.
The exchange of diplomatic missions was a concession that European nations were equal in stature to China.
It was very difficult to concede that the Middle Kingdom of China was the civilized center of the world and that all other people were barbarians.
They had little choice but to use European battle ships.
Although it was not immediately apparent, China's defeat in the Opium War contributed to a growing crisis that threatened not just the Qing dynasty, but Chinese civilization as a whole.
There were several rebellions that swept through south China in the 1850s and early 1860s, at one point threatening to overthrow the Qing dynasty.
You can see the chapter opener.
Taiping fighters defeated the demoralized and ill-disciplined Qing forces who were sent to destroy them.
They captured a wide Confucian basis of scholar-gentry by the spring of 1854.
The rebel leaders, including Hong, began to plot and quarrel Confucian teachings of the Chinese elite after they attacked traditional hinterlands under Taiping control.
The quality of the military com manders and the training of the God Worshipers' fighters declined as some of them deserted the cause.
Taiping policies increased the number of enemies against them.
None of their utopian measures to provide better lives for their followers were actually implemented, and their puritanical regulations were resented by their often hostile subjects.
Europeans were upset by the ban on opium smoking and Hong's bizarre variations on Christian teachings.
The Taiping movement was the most serious alternative to the Qing dynasty and Confucian civiliza tion as a whole.
The Taipings offered sweeping programs for social reform, land redistribution, and the liberation of women, but they also attacked the traditional Confucian elite.
One of the main causes of the Taipings' defeat was their attack on the scholar-gentry.
The provincial scholar-gentry became the focus century because of the no option but to rally to the Manchu regime.
The introduction of resistance to the Taipings was advocated.
The late 19th-century movement in and factories in the areas they governed modernized their armies.
The challenge from breakdown of Taiping leadership and the declining appeal of a movement that could not deliver on the West was counterbalanced by the China.
Hong died before his capital was reclaimed.
Tens of thousands of his followers died in battle or in mass fires.
The Manchu rulers resisted reforms that were the only hope of saving the regime and Confucian- Chinese civilization, despite their clearly desperate situation by the late 19th century.
Some officials who pushed for reforms were inspired by the example of the West.
They were frustrated by the backlash of members of the imperial household and their allies, who were deter mined to preserve the old order with only minor changes and no concessions to the West.