15 -- Part 5: Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation
Charles V exercised theoretical jurisdiction over a lot of European territory.
He claimed authority over a large part of North and South America, despite the fact that Spanish control was weak.
In early-sixteenth-century Europe, calls for reform in the church came from a wide range of people.
The ideas of Martin Luther were found by a ready audience.
The Christian message was linked to calls for gious reform movement that began social change.
Europeans were very religious during the 16th century.
Many people were highly critical of the Roman Catholic Church and its clergy despite their deep piety.
The prestige of church leaders was badly damaged by Papal conflicts with rulers and the Great Schism.
Papal tax collection methods were attacked.
There was opposition to the clergy.
Critics of the church attacked clerical immorality, poorly trained or barely literate priests, and clerical absenteeism in the early 16th century.
Many clerics held several offices at the same time, a practice called pluralism.
They didn't visit the commu nities served by the benefices and didn't perform the spiritual responsibilities of those offices.
Local resentment of clerical privileges and immunities was also present.
Priests, monks, and nuns were not required to pay taxes or defend the city.
Large amounts of urban property were held by religious orders.
The clergy were being integrated into civic life.
The independence of the church from lay control has been stressed by the papacy for centuries.
The dramatic changes of the sixteenth century were not caused by widespread criticism of the church.
The personal religious struggle of a University of Wittenberg professor and Augustinian friar resulted in those.
Martin Luther was a very conscientious friar, but he was worried about his ability to meet God's demands.
He began to understand Christian doctrine after studying the letters of Saint Paul in the New Testament.
He said that faith is a free gift of God, not the result of human effort, and that salvation and justification come through faith.
The traditions of the church do not reveal God's word in biblical scripture.
Saint Peter's indulgence was used to finance his building plans in Rome.
A German pamphlet shows a monk offering an idiocy, with the official seals of the pope attached, as people run to put their money in a box in exchange for his promise of heavenly bliss.
The first Catholic practice that Luther criticized openly was indulgences.
The pamphlet attacks the sale of indulgences, calling it a point of view expressed in the woodcut by the peddler's riding on a donkey, an animal that had been used as a symbol of ignorantness.
The forms were often fil -in-the-blank.
The seller's name is at the top, the buyer's name is in the middle, and the date is at the bottom.
Many people believed that they had no need for repentance once they had purchased indulgences.
He argued that the seriousness of penance was undermined by the use of indulgences.
Luther intended the theses for academic debate, but by December 1517 they had been translated from Latin into German and were read throughout the Holy Roman Empire.
The ruler of the territory in which Luther lived protected him so he was able to avoid going to Rome.
Luther burned the letter containing the papal order after the pope ordered him to re cant many of his ideas.
Luther refused to recant, citing the authority of Scripture and his own conscience.
The Empire was convened in the German city of Worms.
In 1521, Martin Luther refused to recant his writings.
As he developed his ideas, Luther gathered a group of people who came to be Protestants.
salvation is achieved by faith and good works according to Catholic teaching.
Protes tants held that salvation comes from faith alone.
salvation is initiated by God, not people.
Protestants believed that authority rests in the Bible alone, not in the Bible or traditional church teachings.
The Roman Catholic practice of looking to a clerical, hierarchical institution headed by the pope in Rome differed markedly from the Protestants' belief that the church is a spiritual priesthood of al believers.
The medieval church stressed the superiority of the monastic life over the secular life.
Luther argued that every person should serve God in his or her own way.