As you progress through the book, you will see that our plan is to move from basic topics to general and broad ones.
Our ability to adapt to a changing environment is dependent on the central Nervous system.
The relation between biological and psychological functions is rapidly evolving.
Understanding how the human body and brain work helps us to understand many areas of psychology, such as the nature of personality, the causes of certain abnormal behaviors, our reaction to stress, and the effectiveness of some types of therapy with certain patients but not with others.
The human brain is the most complex machine ever built.
There are millions of connections that can be made among its parts.
A growing number of professionals are evolutionary psychologists.
mate selection will be examined from an evolutionary point of view in this book.
Charles Darwin took a scientific journey around the world.
Darwin wondered why nature came in so many different types.
"What may be the single most important and far-reaching scientific theory that has ever been formulated" was the result of his efforts to answer this question.
The grand plan for development contained in an organisms genes has been the subject of thousands of years of evolu tion.
Costs as well as benefits are involved in each adaptation.
For example, the benefits that derive from increased cranial capacity in humans had to be balanced against the in creased risk of mortality during childbirth; bigger heads have a greater chance of getting stuck in the birth canal, which can result in the deaths of both mother and child.
Over thousands of years, our brains have developed short cuts that allow us to make decisions about events that influence our behavior.
Some of these short cuts can lead to poor decisions.
As you read about evolution and the evolutionary perspective in the next section, here are some points and considerations from Gallup et al.
Many of the behaviors associated with adaptive benefits of selected human with these emotions have been adaptive as a result of evolution.
Researchers focus on discover characteristics that lead to the actual genetic material responsible for the physical structure or behavior under advantage in adapting to the environment in addition to studying the process of natural selection.
Chapter 9 contains more about genetics.
As you read this book, keep the evolutionary in mind.
If it can help you understand why a particular generation developed certain behaviors.
The relation between biological factors and behavior is the focus of this new term.
The term a range of disciplines implies that these scientists represent several disciplines, including psychology (es, psychology, and psychiatry that focus on the role of psychologists), biology, medicine, and others.
The most complex machine ever constructed is being studied by the researchers.
An overview of how humans relate to their environment is what our examination begins with.
In Chapter 3, we discuss several of thereceptors located in the eyes and ears.
The brain is where this processing takes place.
We may need to respond to the sensory input once we've processed it.
The brain and spinal cord are part of the central nervous system.
The right hemisphere gets input from the left side of the environmental feature, while the left gets input from the right side of the body.
First, we take a closer look at the specialized cells that are sensitive to specific types of energy.
If we think of the nervous system as a computer, the PNS would consist of the Division of the nervous system that "peripherals," such as the monitor, keyboard, and printer, which transport neural fibers into and out of the central portion of the nervous system.
The nerves that go from the brain to the muscles are involved in a chain of events.
The outer parts of the body are connected with the cNs.
The brain and spine comprise the cNs.
In ancient times, stress was used to prepare organisms for fight, which was helpful in dealing with dangerous animals.
When the sympathetic system was activated, our ancestors' bodies were pre or flight ready.
You are walking to your car at night in the mall parking lot.
You were stuck in a parking spot that was miles away from the mall because of all the holiday shoppers.
Suddenly, a figure dressed in dark clothing and a ski mask runs at you from between two cars and throws you to the ground.
The sympathetic nervous system makes a sound.
In this case, you become prepared for fight or flight.
When you were attacked in the parking lot all of the vocabulary associated with it is evidence that the sympathetic nervous system is working.
Do flash-card drills with a friend.
The major sympathetic responses are described in Figure 2-2.
Most likely associated with the peripheral, you experience all of them in this situation.
Some of these processes involve an increase in a particular bodily function, others define the word or phrase.
When the parasympathetic nervous system is used to return the body to a resting or operating state, the pupils of the eyes dilate and the heart rate slows.
The central processing unit of a computer is similar to the engine of a car.
Some of the components are introduced in the following section.
The body's information superhighway is the spine.
Information is sent to the brain and back down from the brain if it isn't processed solely within the spine.
They send information either directly to a motor nerve or up the spine for further pro cessing by the brain.
The journey all the way to the brain takes less time than the message that brings about it.
The distance between the brain and the spine is greater than the distance between the brain and the spine.
You withdrew your foot by the time the pain message reached your brain.
A stimulation causes a pain sensation.
Goodenough et al are the source of sensory messages.
The appropriate motor neurons are stimulated by interneurons.
The appropriate muscles are stimulated by motor neurons.
The foot is lifted off the glass by leg muscles.
The nervous system is important to the activities of processing and responding, but another system plays a bigger role.
The hormones produced by the glands in the body are carried through the blood flow to their target in another part of the body.
The endocrine system can be carried by the bloodstream to other parts of the nervous system.
The function of each gland is described.
Nighttime elevations in circulating melatonin levels can be explained by the fact that the pineal gland receives input from our visual pathways.
This hormone regulates our sleep-wake cycle.
melatonin levels increase as night approaches.
melatonin levels decrease as daylight approaches.
Hypoglycemia can lead to sweating, shallow breathing, and even unconsciousness.
Diabetes can result in a number of diseases.
The feedback system of the endocrine glands can be seen in the pancreas.
When you eat a meal and the food is broken down into glucose, the rise in the blood sugar level in your body is a sign that you need to eat more.
The amount ofinsulin produced by the pancreas decreases when the primary hormone cose level drops.
In people with diabetes, the body either doesn't produce the neededinsulin or the body cells don't respond to theinsulin that is present.
This small gland is located deep in the brain.
It is an important center for a wide variety of survival behaviors.
Key centers for controlling aggression include fighting, fleeing, sexual activity, and hunger.
The interplay between the nervous system and the endocrine system is reflected in the release of these pituitary hormones.
Within two months of birth or mental retardation, treatment for the thyroid hormone must start.
The differences between the sexes are due to the amount of hormones in the endocrine glands.
In some cases, the decrease in testosterone levels in the larynx can be so great that it can lead to a variety of symptoms.
It would seem easy to provide testosterone.
The diges General term refers to the sex tive system and renders testosterone useless.
There are two ways to deal with this problem.
The hormones that affect sexual and upper arms and shoulders are spread across the abdomen and never applied to the genitals.
The endocrine system is an important part of the human body and can be overlooked.
It is easy to talk about the function of the endocrine system.
When our body prepares for a fight or flight, the nervous system sends the first alarm to the sympathetic nervous system, but it is the endocrine system's hormones that keep the level of arousal up over a longer period of time.
When you are under stress, the adrenal glands make hormones that make you fight or flight.
The importance of hormones can be seen in our understanding of disorders.
We have provided an overview of the entire nervous system and a more detailed look at the endocrine system.
We will take a closer look at the smallest units of the nervous system in the next section.
The nervous system is connected to sensory and motor nerves in the spine.
The environment affects the behavior of the endocrine system.
They are ready to destroy the opponents because you want something more than a soda.
The rate of sugar release is increased.
Jack caught his hand in a tight space under the car.
Pick up the $5 bill.
Several of her friends are thinking of careers in medicine and psychology, so they decided to take a field trip to a research hospital.
Like other cells in the body, neurons have a nucleus, are enclosed in a membrane, and have an assortment of smaller structures.
Unlike other cells, neurons send and receive messages.
There are different sizes and shapes of neuron.
Motor neurons are large because they have longer distances to travel.
A large number of infarctions can occupy a given area.
The common elements of neurons are a variety of sizes and shapes.
The trees in the forest are so numerous that they have been compared to Neurons.
They can spread out and connect.
The two primary players in a neuron are the axons and dendrites.
There is a very small area called a synapse where neurons make their connections.
Like the branches of a tree, most neurons have many dendrites that receive information.
It is possible for a single neuron to receive signals from many others.
The neural signal from the dendrites to the axon is relayed by the soma.
There is only one axon in the cell body of each neuron.
The cell body contains the nucleus and materials for its maintenance and functioning.
The cell body is involved in metabolism.
The input from other neurons is integrated.
The dendrites, soma, axon, and terminal buttons are the basic structures of all neurons.
Some of the axons in the brain are very small.
The axon of a motor neuron can travel all the way to your hand or foot.
Although only one axon leaves the soma, it may branch several times before reaching its target.
The axon branches can send the same signal.
We can look at how neurons differ now that we know the structures of all of them.
The axons are one of the major differences between neurons.
The appearance of the myelin covered axons is what accounts for the appearance of the spine.
There are fewer myelinated axons in the brain and the rest of the neuron, as well as unmyelinated axons.
Short circuits between the axons are prevented by the myelin sheath, a kind of living electrical tape.
glial cells have a number of functions, including removing waste, occupying vacant space when neurons die, and guiding the migration of neurons during brain development.
glial cells are the supporting cast members of the show.
In the movies, there are scores of supporting players with small but important parts.
There are about nine glial cells for every neuron, but the cells are smaller.
The view of glial cells as supporting players is beginning to change.
glial cells can communicate with one another about the messages that travel among them The glial cells can change the signals at the point where the neurons communicate.
glial cells may play a role in learning and forming memories as a result of this new information.
They may be involved in repairing damage.
They can clean up spills of glutamate, a brain chemical that can be toxic in excess.
What happens if you accidentally put your hand on a stove?
There is a reduced chance of passing on one's component of a neuron located genes without that speed.
Even though a signal is transmitted rapidly down the axon, motor axons are at the end of the axon, so anything neurotransmitters are stored before that speeds up transmission will help.
The transmission of glial cells is up to 100 times faster than neural impulses on unmyelinated axons.
Young adults at an average age of 30 are usually affected by the axons disease.
For reasons that are not clear, site where two or more neurons interact is more common in women than in men and is more common in climates that don't touch.
The most common symptoms of Multiplesclerosis are weakness in the muscles, weakness in the limbs, and weakness in the face.
Although the impulses disease has little effect on life expectancy, it has a significant effect on a person's quality of life and can affect memory and visual spatial abilities.
Myelin sheaths are destroyed as the disease progresses.
Where the damage occurs affects the sever ity of the disease.
Damage to myelin sheaths in the brain stem can cause a patient to be wheelchair bound.
In this section, we look at how information is transmitted from one neuron to another.
In order to send a message, the neurons must be arranged in a certain way.
The most common arrangement at the end of an axon is a terminal button, a dendrite and a gap between them.
It would take more than 12 million of them to fill an inch.
Nerves communicate with one another as well as with muscles and glands.
"Neurons communicate with vesicles one another" is a synaptic source.
The signals from one neuron to the other are carried by the chemical sig in the terminal button.
When the neurotransmitter enters the next neuron, it contacts the dendrite of the next neuron.
The neural signal to be transmitted from one neuron to the next is low when the neurotransmitters attach or bind to the specially shaped receptor sites.
Depending on the type of neurotransmitter and the location of the scepter in the nervous system, one of two outcomes can be achieved.
The importance of neurotransmitters in even basic behaviors like moving is evident in the case of a 65-year-old carpenter.
Several years ago, he noticed that his fingers felt stiff and that he was starting to have slight tremors in his hands.
He was unable to work because of his condition.
Parkinson's disease is more common in men and women.
Many people are aware that boxer Muhammad Ali and actor Michael J are afflicted with this disease.
The disease is caused by the death of dopamine-releasing neurons in the brain, which makes it difficult to initiate motor movements.
People with Parkinson's disease have to pay attention to things like getting out of a chair, holding a coffee cup, and starting to walk.
Their muscles become more rigid because they are partially contracted, and other symptoms include clude tremors, slowed movements, poor balance, as well as pain, depression, and severe insomnia (Shearer, Green, Counsell, and Zajicek, 2011).
Parkinson's disease robbed him of his athletic ability.
Fox was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease in 1991.
The development of a cure for Parkinson's is a priority for the Fox Foundation.
Fox testified in favor of increased funding of research to find a cure for Parkinson's disease.
If Parkinson's disease results in low dopamine levels, a likely treatment would be administering dopamine to patients.
This treatment is not logical.
Do you think that the solution to the problems of Parkinson's disease is not administering dopamine?
The brain is important and must be protected.
The environment contains many substances that could be harmful to the brain.
A blood-brain barrier, a screenlike element that allows some sub stances into the brain and keeps out other substances, was developed through thousands of years of evolution.
Dopamine does not cross the blood- brain barrier, sometimes this barrier keeps out potentially helpful substances.
The barrier can let in some potentially harmful substances, such as alcohol.
L-dopa crosses the blood-brain barrier and is a building block for dopamine.
The brain uses L-dopa to make dopamine once it crosses the blood-brain barrier.
The increase in dopamine levels can lead to an improvement in the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
The treatment does not cure Parkinson's disease.
The positive effects of L-dopa wear off as patients lose sensitivity to the treatment.
Several failed attempts to transplant fetal tissue into the brains of Parkinson's disease patients have added an element of debate and restraint.
The device stimulates the affected brain areas.
There is a closer look at some of the major neurotransmitters.
Dopamine seems to play a role in producing dependence on drugs such as amphet amines, cocaine, and morphine.
Dopamine is released from nerve cells in the brain.
Serotonin plays a role in weight regulation, sleep, depression, suicide, obsessive-compulsive disorder, aggression, and a wide range of other dis orders and behavior problems.
Compared to a control group, people who committed suicide had less dopamine in the area of the brain just above the eyes.
Zoloft, Paxil, and Prozac increase the levels of the neurotrans mitter serotonin.
The first to be covered was the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which controls activity in brain areas related to attention, learning, and memory.
This devastating disease generally afflicts older people, although some variant may occur in people in their 50s.
A 51-year-old woman exhibited mem antidepressants that affect the ory deficits and other symptoms that became much worse in a short period of time.
She was no longer able to care for herself so they were prescribed for a range.
Five years later, an autopsy revealed that the hallmark of the disease were plaques in the brain and problems.
Many of our nerves and muscles are at the junction of ACh.
When the curare enters the victim, it takes the place of acetylcholine in the brain.
Messages from the brain are carried down the nerves, but when they reach the muscles they don't get through, resulting in paralysis and death.
It is often called upon to keep the lines of communication open, engage in passing along information, and possibly play a role in learning.
The neurotransmitter seems to have a darker side.
It is possible that excessive levels of glutamate will cause neurons to die.
This could account for the loss of neurons that can occur in strokes, head injuries, and some seizure disorders.
Researchers are working on ways to keep glutamate levels in check when there are insults to the brain.
The brain and the spine are home to a wide range of inhibitory neurotransmitters.
The brain has tightly packed neurons.
The effect of excitatory neurotransmitters on these neurons is to increase the tendency to excite their neighbors.
When someone experiences an epileptic seizure, the neu rotransmitters have to be stopped.
The brain needs a balance to be created.
The following scenario shows the importance of the neurotransmitters.
Imagine removing a hot pot from the stove.
The pot holder is not thick enough to protect against the heat.
You can get the hot pot to the table without dropping it because of the pain caused by the heat.
The excitatory neurotransmitter powered the motor neurons to pull away from the pot.
If you dropped the pot, inhibition from the brain would cause a disaster.
This excitatory neurotransmitter causes physical and mental arousal and heightens our mood.
The power behind the fight-or-flight response is found in the autonomic nervous system.
Norepinephrine has been implicated in anxiety disorders.
The features of the neurotransmitters are reviewed in Table 2-1.
Refer to this table frequently to get a helpful review.
The sphinx needs to be cleared.
For a moment, think about this question and you will understand how important it is.
Before additional signals can be transmitted, the sphinxes must be cleared quickly.
Depending on the particular neuro transmitter involved, the synapse can be cleared in one of two ways.
That shows the characteristics of the major neurotransmitters.
The postsynaptic membrane can receive another signal once the ACh is broken down and the receptor sites are empty.
The rapid breakdown is a visual strategy for producing the rapid motor responses required to play the piano, type, or works best for you.
Once the neurotransmitter has produced its effect on the postsynaptic membrane, it reenters the vesicles of the terminal buttons, where it is ready to be used again.
The reuptake removes the neurotransmit ters from the brain.
Understanding how drugs affect the brain has increased our knowledge.
Some drugs increase the effectiveness of neurotransmitters, while other drugs reduce their effectiveness.
It is very likely that the key biological action takes place in or near the sphinx, regardless of the specific effect that a drug may have.
Drugs that enhance the effects down the neurotransmitter in the brain are eliminated by some agonists.
A more intense response occurs when the neurotransmitter of a particular neurotransmitter remains active for a longer period.
Enhancing the amount of precursors by destroying them.
Drug blocks are released.
Drug is a lie.
Drug can block deactivation by blocking breakdown or reuptake.
Both types of drugs can work in different ways.
The drug physostigmine inactivates the acetylcholinesterase.
The ACh is active longer.
Drugs such as physostigmine pro duce a range of behavioral effects that may include nightmares and vivid dreaming, as well as parasympathetic effects such as decreased heart rate and constric tion of the pupils of the eyes.
They can block the neurotransmitter from attaching to the receptor sites.
They prevent the transmission of neural signals by stopping the action of the neurotransmitter.
The drug haloperidol blocks dopamine receptors and reduces the amount of dopamine binding to the postsynaptic membrane.
Researchers believe that some psychological disorders are caused by high levels of dopamine.
Drugs that reduce the level of dopamine are effective in the treatment of these disorders.