As Rick Santorum gave his victory speech after winning the Missouri Republican primary, he was supported by a group of Democracy in Action supporters.
Friess was more than just an ordinary supporter.
The "Red, White, and Blue" campaign group that supported Santorum's campaign was given more than $1.6 million by a Wyoming investment banker.
Most presidential candidates supported the Super PAC in 2011 and 2012 because it was an independent expenditure only committee.
The formation of these committees was allowed by 4.
The Super PAC associated with Rick Santorum was not the only one raising money.
Newt Gingrich was supported by the "Winning Our Future" organization, which received 20 million dollars in donations during the 2012 presidential campaign.
The U.S. presidential of money in presidential the United States, elections and why they are elections and the American elections are included.
President Barack Obama and his family walk out on the stage at his election night party in Chicago.
David B. Magleby explains three important rules to consider when crafting a campaign strategy.
This video will help you understand why the United States has so many types of elections, what purposes they serve, and whether money and campaign staff is vital to campaign victories.
Voting and elections are essential to a democracy.
Costas Panagopolos is a political scientist at Fordham University.
He explains how electoral reforms have expanded the voting population.
During the last half of the twentieth century, voter turnoutdeclined as scholars responded to it.
The Supreme Court ruled in Citizen's United that the courts cannot limit the amount of money that can be spent on an election.
Real people decide whether or not they agree with a decision, and consider its long-term implications.
Politics is more than just the candidates.
The other players in campaigns and elections and the importance of knowing which team you are most comfortable joining are included in the book by David B. Magleby.
In 2012 it was not clear if Super PACs were really independent entities.
The negative tone of the ads they ran was a concern.
Almost three-quarters of the ads in the 2012 Republican primaries were negative.
Money spent on elections is just one of many markers of their importance.
There is a lot of time devoted to cam paigns by candidates, political parties, interest groups, and individuals.
In the United States, citizens vote more often and for more offi ces than in any other democracy.
Thousands of elections are held for everything from community college directors to county sheriffs.
In 2012 we elected the president and vice president, 33 U.S. senators, 9 all 435 members of the U.S. House of Representatives, 14 state governors, and, in many states, treasurers, secretaries of state, and judges.
Voters in 27 states can vote on laws or amendments proposed by initiative petitions or on popular referendums put on the ballot by petition.
The election rules are explored in this chapter.
The lack of competition, the complexity of nominating presidential candidates, and the distortion of the Electoral College are some of the problems we note.
We discuss pro posed reforms in these areas.
Much of the discussion in this chapter is relevant to state and local elections, but our focus is on presidential and congressional elections.
The elections are held at intervals that the party in power can't change.
If the nation is at war, as we were during the Civil War, or in the midst of a crisis, the election is held.
In November of even-numbered years, elections for members of Congress occur on Tuesday after the Monday.
The party in power in Canada and Great Britain can call elections at any time.
One of the characteristics of democracy in the United States is the timing of elections.
The presidency is for four years, the Senate is for six years, and the House of Representatives is for two years.
In an electoral district in which voters have to give up their Senate seat to run for president, vice choose one representative or official.
He was narrowly defeated in his race for vice president.
He would have resigned his Senate seat if the election system had been like that.
Knowing that a president can't run again changes the way people view him.
In several states, limiting the terms of other offi ces has become a major issue.
There is a consequence of term limits.
State term limits were mostly adopted in the 1990s.
State legislatures in 15 states have term limits.
State court rulings or legislation have led to the repeal of term limits in six states.
South Dakota voters overwhelmingly voted to keep term limits.
Despite their popularity at the state level, proposals for term limits on federal legislators have been defeated when they have come to a vote in Congress.
The Supreme Court ruled that a state does not have the power to limit the number of terms for congress members.
Congress did not propose a limit on congressional terms.
In New York's 23rd Congressional District, a special election was held in 2009.
Bill Owens won the race with 48 percent of the vote, not a majority.
Doug Hoff received 46 percent of the vote, while Dierdre Scozzafava received less than 6 percent.
Moderate and centrist candidates are more likely to be reinforced by winner-take-all electoral systems.
Candidates in a winner-take-all system often stress that a vote for a minor party candidate is a waste of time and money.
Minor parties are hard to win when the single-member district and winner-take-all systems are combined.
Even if a third party gets 25 percent of the vote, it still won't get any seats.
The electoral system is used to vote.
For people who identify with parties that rarely win elections, proportional representation may encourage them to vote for the president and vice president.
Problems can be caused by proportional representation.
If minor parties win seats, it may make it harder to have a clear winner.
Opponents of proportional representation worry that it can cause political instability.
The Framers of the U.S. Constitution did not want the president to be elected by the people.
7 states and the District of Columbia have 3 electoral votes each, while California has 55 electoral votes.
Each state legislature has the ability to pick its electors.
The slate of electors is usually nominated by the party workers.
In our entire history, no "faithless elector" has ever cast the deciding vote, and the incidence of a faithless elector is rare.
Candidates who win a plurality of the popular vote in a state secure all of that state's electoral votes, except in Nebraska and Maine, which allocate electoral votes to the winner in each congressional district plus two electoral votes for the winner of the state as a whole.
Winning electors go to their state capital on Monday after the second Wednesday in December to cast their votes.
The electoral college did not decide the winner in two of the four elections.
The 1824 election was decided by the U.S. House of Representatives.
In the 1876 presidential election, the electoral vote in four states was disputed, leading to the appointment of an electoral commission to decide how the votes should be counted.
The Electoral Commission of 1877, depicted in the drawing, met in secret session and after a lot of votes, Hayes was elected.
It takes a lot of votes to win.
The chances of an election being thrown into the House are remote when there are only two major candidates for the presidency.
In 1824, the House picked John Quincy Adams over Andrew Jackson.
George Bush became president after Gore lost the Electoral College vote.
It almost happened in 1916, 1960, and 1976, when the shift of votes in a few states could have resulted in the election of a president without a popular majority.
Every time a third-party candidate runs for president, there are questions about the Electoral College.
The table shows that many of the 2004 battleground states swung in favor of Obama.
The lead waned in 2012 but Obama still won reelection.
The vote does not count.
The House and Senate would be controlled by a diff erent party if the election were held today.
The Electoral College is involved in presidential politics.
Wyoming and Vermont have disproportionate representation in the Electoral College because of their small populations.
Evaluate proposed solutions to the problems associated with administering elections.
They didn't expect to be questioned about how they registered to vote.
They didn't expect their ballot to be lost.
According to state law, votes are counted in the United States.
Technology used in voting varies from state to state.
Paper ballots, voting machines, and punch-card ballots were all used in Florida in 2000.
States have moved from using computerized voting systems to paper ballots that can be scanned.
There are reasons for this, including lower costs for optical scans and a paper ballot.
Increased scrutiny over the voter registration process has become more common since the 2010 election, as we discuss in the chapter on public opinion.
Some battleground states reduced the number of early voting days in 2012 causing controversy.
When the nation waited for weeks to decide whether George W. Bush or Al Gore would be president, the way ballots are counted changed.
The dispute raised important questions about how votes are counted and how votes are cast.
In every election, in every jurisdiction, and with every technology, voting is imperfect.
Touchscreen software can be manipulated; people can miscount paper ballots; and so on.
The goal in election administration is to minimize errors and eliminate bias.
The means by which we vote are more complicated than the counting of votes.
In 2000, Florida's presidential election was decided by 537 votes, and the decisions about which ballots to count and which not to count mattered.
A close election may not be decided until days after the polls close because of the growth in Absentee Voting and Mailing Ballots.
The judge used a magnifying glass to look at a dimpled chad on a punch card ballot.
There were vote counting and ballot problems in the 2000 presidential election.
Some voters failed to make their vote clear by punching out the "chad" for the choice they were going to vote for.
The format of the ballot was confusing in other counties.
The Help America Vote Act was passed because of the Florida problems.
Volunteer poll workers arrive at the polls hours before voting starts to set up equipment and ensure that the voter lists, ballots, and voting equipment are ready to go.
Poll workers can make a big difference in the security, effi ciency, and overall environment of polling locations.
Who is not allowed to vote on Election Day is a source of con troversy.
People must be registered to vote in most states.
Voters are expected to cast their votes.
Some voters were confused when they went to the wrong place to vote in 2012 because of the new voting places.
The law allows voters who think they should be allowed to vote but who are not on the rolls to cast a ballot.
If the voter is registered to vote, the ballots are counted.
After the 2000 and 2004 elections, federal and state governments invested a lot of money in new voting technology.
The integrity of the voting process is a high priority for interest groups, political parties and candidates.
More attention was given to who may or may not vote in 2012 after some states added photo identification requirements in order to vote.
Groups established toll-free hotlines for voters to call if they felt they were not being treated fairly, and lawyers were on call when a person's right to vote was challenged.
This barrier has been broken by which people.
Young people argued that it was history.
It took another constitutional amendment to grant the right to vote to people under the age of 21.
They have been made govern their own name or keep their own earnings.
Slowly, the right to vote was extended to women.
Why was it right for women to vote in 1869?
It took another half property ownership for adult women to have the right.
Should they be required to vote?
It took two people to do it.
Explain why congressional elections are not competitive.
Most House elections are not close.
In districts where an elected office that is predictably won by one party or the other, so the people belong to one party or where incumbents are popular and enjoy fundraising and success of that party's candidate is other campaign advantages, there is often little competition.
19 districts are usually taken for granted.
When ceholders don't have to retain their seats, elections aren't an election because of the popularity of candidates above them.
Competition is more likely when both candidates have enough money.
The elections for governor and the U.S. Senate are more important than those for the U.S. House.
Both House and Senate races are affected by presidential popularity.
Winning presidential candidates don't always give a boost.
October 11, 2012 and October 15, 2012 were accessed.
Both tossup and lean Republican are included in competitive seats.
The Democrats gained 21 House seats and 8 Senate seats on the coattails of Barack Obama's convincing presidential win in 2008.
Presidential popularity and economic conditions have long been associated with the number of House seats a president's party loses.
The president's party does well in Senate races, but the association is less strong.
The number of seats in the House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate have been gained or lost by the party in control of the White House.
Between 1934 and 1998 the party in control of the White House lost seats in the House.
The long-standing pattern of the president's party losing seats in a mid-term election did not hold in 1998 and 2002.
The Republicans lost 30 House seats in 2006 and the Democrats won many of the most competitive districts, making them vulnerable to the GOP in 2010.
Republicans gained 6 seats in the Senate and 64 in the House in 2010.
This was the greatest number of House seats gained by a party since 1938 when the GOP had a net gain of 72 seats, and it surpassed the 54 seats the Democrats lost in 1994.
Blue Dog Democrats are centrist Democrats who did well for Republicans.
In 2010, more than half of this group in the House were defeated or retired.
There are as many as 1,000 candidates for Congress every two years.
Most incumbents are not challenged for reelection from within their own party.
In the 1990s, on average only two House incumbents were denied re-election.
In 2010, four House incumbents were denied re-election.
Challengers from other parties don't face opposition from their own party.
In 2010, Tea Party-supported candidates defeated the party leader's preferred Senate candidates in Kentucky, Nevada, and Delaware.
Asking friends and acquaintances as well as interest groups for money is required.
Candidates need money to hire campaign managers and technicians, buy television and other advertising, conduct polls, and pay for a variety of activities.
Parties don't give money in primary contests.
Until the nomination is decided, the party organization stays neutral.
A congressional candidate can build an organization while holding another offi ce, such as a seat in the state leg islature, by serving in civic causes, helping other candidates, and being discreet without being controversial.
A candidate has a main hurdle.
Candidates are mentioned by the media.
In large cities with many simultaneous campaigns, congressional candidates are often overlooked, and in all areas, television is devoting less time to political news.
The same techniques used in campaigns for lesser offi ces are used by 27 candidates.
The turnout in primaries tends to be low, except in campaigns in which large sums of money are spent on advertising.
The electorate in a general election is different from the electorate in a primary election.
More voters turn out in general elections for the less committed partisans and Independents.
In a general election, partisanship is more important than party as many voters use party as a simpler way to choose from candidates in the many races they decide.
In districts where the party is strong, candidates make their partisanship clear and candidates from a minority party don't emphasize it.
In general elections, issues can be important, but they are often more local than national issues.
A major national issue can help or hurt one party.
Some elections for Congress or the state legislature are referendums on the president or governor, but public opinion is not the only factor in play.
Most incumbent members of Congress win reelection.
There are a lot of advantages for incumbents.
In 2010 the diff erences were not as large.
The majority of challengers run campaigns that are less visible than incumbents.
In competitive House races, the party committees and outside groups often spend as much as the candidates.
31 Super PACs and other interest groups spend a lot on these contests.
Four of the targets of the new group, Campaign for Primary Accountability, lost in the primaries.
In addition, incumbents generally win because their district boundaries are drawn to favor their party.
If the district is heavily partisan, the incumbent is likely to retain the seat and get other advantages as well.
The new representative is determined by the contest for the nomination in the main party.
The Ohio congresswoman was defeated in her bid for a second term.
The Campaign for Primary Accountability ran radio ads against her before the primary because of the redrawn district boundaries.
Running for the Senate is more prestigious than running for the House.
Incumbency is not as important for senators as it is for representatives.
Incumbent senators are well known, but their opponents raise and spend a lot of money.
The White House becomes more involved in recruiting candidates when one party controls the Senate by a few seats.
Democratic Senator and Majority Leader HarryReid courted a former U.S.
There is an open senate seat in Nebraska.
The cost of Senate campaigns can vary a lot.
It's cheaper to run for a seat in Wyoming than it is to run for a seat in California.
Interest groups and parties give more money to competitive races in small states where their campaign dollars have a greater impact.
The Vital Statistics on American Politics was written by Harold W. Stanley and Richard G. Niemi.
Voters in the United States now have the chance to vote for women in a number of offices.
In our sample, the most common response is that men and women are equally qualified to be political leaders.
Japan, Mexico, and the United States all have high proportions of people who think that both genders are good leaders.
In Nigeria, there is a preference for male leaders, with 48 percent saying they make better leaders.
One way to look at the data is to compare the views of people who don't think men and women are equally good leaders.
The people in India, Britain, and Mexico are equally divided between men and women.
Men are preferred over women by 2.5 to 1 in the other countries.
The two genders are not seen as equally qualified by some people.
There are stages in the U.S. presidential elections and differences in campaigning.
Winning the nomination, campaigning at the convention, and mobilizing support in the general election are part of the formal campaign.
Presidential hopefuls must make decisions.
When to start campaigning is a question.
Romney's opponents joked that he had been running for president for more than six years.
Candidates usually announce their candidacy in March or April.
The decision to delay his entry did not explain his poor performance in the debates.
Candidates need to make early decisions to raise money.
Candidates try to line up supporters to win caucuses or primaries in key states as they try to raise money for their nomination
The complex maze of presidential primaries and caucuses is one of the hardest jobs for candidates and their strategists.
The system for electing delegates to the national party convention varies from state to state.
Candidates in some states have to give lists of delegates who will support them in the primary.
Both Rick Santorum and Newt Gingrich failed to get enough signatures to get into the Virginia primary.
Santorum's campaign lost delegates to Romney because he failed to get a full slate of delegates in Ohio.
Candidates have to make a decision on whether to participate in partial public campaigning in their primary campaigns.
The presidential campaign provides funds to match small individual contributions during the nomination phase for candidates who agree to remain within their spending limits.
Not all candidates accept funding, which limits the amount they can raise from other sources.
In the 2000 and 2004 nomi nation phase, George W. Bush declined federal funds, as did John Kerry and Howard Dean.
Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton, Mitt Romney, Rudy Giuliani, Ron Paul, and Mike Huckabee all turned down matching funds.
At one point, John McCain said he would accept them.
In 2012 only Charles "Buddy" Roemer III, a largely invisible candidate who unsuccessfully sought the "Americans Elect" nomination, was eligible for and received matching funds.
The overall limit for this phase of the process can be removed if the public matching funds are not used.
Most serious candidates for the White House are likely to decline federal matching funds.
The main method of choosing delegates to the national convention has been state presidential primaries.
A delegate is a person chosen by local partisans to represent them.
A meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates chosen by state party caucuses or conventions or were party leaders who served as "su for public office and to decide the perdelegates" is a term describing delegates not typically elected through the primaries or platform.
The percentage of votes a candidate gets in the primary is used to allocate delegates to the national convention.
Three-quarters of the states' delegates elected in primaries are determined by the proportional vote in congressional districts, which is why Democrats mandate proportional representation for all their primaries.
In 2012 more than half of Republican delegates were determined proportionally, including those in 27 states.
California was the largest state to use a winner-take-all primary in 2012 and Republicans still used the winner-take-all system at the state level.
It is an enormous bonus to win all the delegates in a big state like California.
The selection of the presidential candidate to party leaders and elected offi cials was increased after the 1972 election.
In 2012 there were ten unbound at-large delegates in seven states.
There was a lot of attention paid to Democratic superdelegates.
Superdelegates cast the deciding vote for Obama in 2008 because no candidate got a majority of delegates through the primary and caucus process.
In several states, voters can choose to indicate their choice for president or to choose delegates that are favorable to the presidential candidate.
In 2012 there were contests like this in eight states.
Voters in states such as Iowa and New Hampshire, which are the fi rst states to pick delegates, bask in media attention for weeks and even months before they cast their votes in the presidential race.
California moved its primary to March in 2000 and 2004 so that voters would have a bigger say in selecting the nominee.
In order to save money, California moved back to June in June.
The parties have sought to prevent too much front loading as states have competed more aggressively for early positioning in primary contests.
When Florida and Michigan moved their primaries up to January 29 and January 15 in 2008, the Democratic National Committee voted that delegates would not be seated.
In 2012 Florida moved up its GOP primary and the national party took away half of the state's GOP nomination contest, but it lasted longer than the 2008 GOP contest, with four candidates.
The methods used are regulated by each state's legislature.
Iowans can attend Republican and Democratic precinct meetings in January in a presidential election year.
In the Republican 2012 contest, Romney did well in both caucuses and primaries, winning about two-thirds of both types of contests.