Chapter 24 -- Part 5: Ideologies of Change in Europe
The imperialist ambitions in Africa were aided by western technological advances.
The slaughter of Muslim tribesmen at the Battle of Omdurman in Sudan was a result of the high mobility of the Maxim gun.
Europeans were able to move safely into the African interior and overwhelm native peoples because of Quinine.
The first long-distance communications in history were made possible by the development of the telegraph in the 1840s.
Domestic political and class conflicts contributed to overseas expansion.
Conservative political leaders often use colonial issues to divert attention from domestic issues and create a false sense of national unity.
Special-interest groups were powerful agents of expansion.
Shipping companies wanted subsidies.
White settlers wanted more land.
Missionaries and humanitarians wanted to stop the slave trade.
Rapid advancement and high-paid positions were seen by military men and colonial officials.
The course of empire was pushed forward by the actions of these groups.
Jules Ferry was most famous for his empire building after gaining political prominence as an ardent champion of secular public education.
While he was French premier, France occupied Tunisia, extended its rule in Indonesia, seized Madagascar, and penetrated the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Ferry was criticized by conservatives, socialists, and some left-wing republicans for his colonial expansion, but he defended his policies before the French National Assembly.
In a speech to the Assembly on July 28, 1883, Ferry answered his critics and summarized his three main arguments with brutal honesty.
Ferry insisted that imperial expansion did not weaken France in its European struggle with Germany, but rather increased France's power.
The language of patriotism was needed by Imperialists.
There is a second point.
I do not hesitate to say that this is not politics, nor is it history: it is political metaphysics.
I need to speak from a higher plane.
It is necessary to state that superior races have rights over inferior races.
Civilizing inferior races is their duty.
There were new interruptions from the left and right.
There are some considerations that merit the attention of all patriots.
The conditions of naval warfare have changed.
A ship which is out of coal is abandoned to the first person who comes along, even if it is perfectly organized, because it cannot carry more than fourteen days' worth of coal.
Provision stations, shelters, ports for defense and revictualling are needed on the oceans.
There was applause at the center and left.
There was applause at the center and left.
Europeans and Americans argued that they could and should "civilize" non-Western peoples.
Africans and Asians would benefit from Western educations, modern economies, cities, advanced medicine, and higher living standards and eventually might be ready for self-government and Western democracy.
European imperialists argued that the imperial government protected colonized people from ethnic warfare, the slave trade, and other forms of exploitation by white settlers and business people.
Kipling's poem, written in response to America's seizure of the principle, was an important factor in the decision to rule.
The idea that Europeans could and should civilize more primitive nonwhite peoples would eventually provide them with modern achievements and higher standards of living.
Imperialists claimed that peace and stability allowed the spread of Christianity.
South of the Sahara, Catholic and Protestant missionaries competed with Islam for converts.
Many Africans had their first contact with Europeans and Americans in mission schools.
The Ibo in Nigeria became highly Christianized.
The failure of missionary efforts in the Islamic world contrasted with the successes in black Africa.
Andrew Pears began making transparent soap in London in 1789.
Massive quantities of palm oil were shipped from Africa to Europe, where palm oil replaced whale oil as the preferred oil for oiling machinery and producing cosmetics.
William and James bought Pears' company in 1910 and sold it along with their own brands, including Sunlight, Lifebuoy, and Lux.
The soaps were made with palm oil from the Solomon Islands.
Pears' soap is made in India.
Palm oil was the king of the world before refined petroleum replaced it.
The idea of taking baths and using soap was new in England.
The soapmaking industry began in the late 18th century.
When manufacturers started advertising soap throughout the empire, practices like using soap and taking baths were still relatively new in England.
Imperial expansion was delivered in 1902.
The quest for empire diverted podomestic reform and the need to reduce poor at home, argued A. Hobson.
These and similar people believe in the homeland.
British and European investors put the United States, Canada, Russia, and other industrializing countries.
British investments in Africa in southern African accounted for less than 51890.
Some of the sprofit from imperial conquests were marginal at best.
Critics accused Europeans of applying a degrading double standard and failing to live up to their own noble standards.
They discriminated against Africans shamelessly in their military dictatorships.
Western profoundly disruptive assault is to African and Asian peoples.
Christian ideologies challenged established beliefs and people's stories varied.
African and Asian rulers responded to imperialist incursions by trying to drive the foreigners away, as in China and Japan.
The industrialized West's superior military technology almost always prevailed over violent antiforeign reactions.
Europeans sought to divide and conquer by giving special powers and privileges to some individuals and groups from among the local population, including traditional leaders such as chiefs, landowners, and religious figures, and Western-educated professionals and civil servants, including police officers and military officers.
The local elites were aware of the imperial power in the realities in which they were enmeshed and manipulated them to maintain or gain authority over the people.
Some concluded that the West was superior in certain ways and that they needed to reform and modernize their societies by copying some European achievements.
By ruling indirectly through a local elite, a relatively small number of Europeans could maintain control over a lot of larger populations.
European empires were maintained despite being won by force.
Imperial rule was built on sand.
Acceptance of European rule was weak among the colonized mass.
They were quick to follow charismatic people who were against the Europeans.
Europeans ruled directly or indirectly through native governments for at least two reasons.
The anti-imperialist leaders had a burning desire for human dignity.
They felt that dignity was not compatible with foreign rule.
Potential leaders found in the Western world have the necessary ideologies and justification for their protest, such as liberalism.
They were attracted to the idea that everyone had the right to decide their own fate.
The anti-imperialist revolt found another weapon in the Marxist socialism.
The only voices that are heard are those of the victors, as there are always two sides to any historical event.
Europe's colonization of the African continent is one of the best examples of historians trying to gather evidence from both sides.
The letter was written to Sir George Grey.
In 1870, he gathered his Basotho peoples and others around him.
He asked the British for help when Afrikaners threatened to take his territory.
June 1858, I know ThabaBosigo.
We were at peace for a while.
My people living near farmers received orders to remove from their places.
If they have remained quiet, it has been due to my persuasions and my promises that they might have good hope of justice.
The letter was written to Queen Victoria.
In January and February 1889, two envoys went to Cape Town and London to seek advice from Queen Victoria after the Rudd Concession.
He repudiated the Rudd Concession in a letter to the queen.
I had a meeting with my Indunas and they won't recognize the paper because it doesn't contain my words or those who got it from me.
Mother Yaa Asantewaa rallies the Asante people in 1900.
Prempeh I, the king of Asante, was deported by the governor general of the British Gold Coast in 1900.
The Golden Stool is the symbol of the Asante nation.
The Asante revolt against the British in the War of the Golden Stool was led by Queen Mother Yaa Asantewaa.
Some of you are afraid to fight for our king.
If it were in the good ol' days.
The governor spoke to your chiefs in a way that no white man could.
King Wobogo refused to negotiate with the French.
The king of the Mosi, Wobogo, refused to negotiate with the French officer, Captain Destenave, in 1895.
The Mosi ruler was installed by the French after they deposed the king.
The beginning of the Anglo-Zulu War took place on January 22, 1879, when about 22,000 Zulu warriors defeated 1,350 British and indigenous troops.
It is the greatest defeat the British have ever suffered.
The British lieutenants made a last stand against the Zulu.
The English war artist Charles Edwin Fripp created this painting shortly after the war ended.
European imperialists said they were ridding Africa of bloodthirsty tyrants.
In addition to what you have learned in class and in this chapter, write a short essay about the different types of African resistance to European colonization.
Islamic civilization spanned from West Africa into southeastern Europe and across Southwest Asia to the East Indies.
Austria and Russia began to challenge the Ottoman Empire in the late 17th century.
The balance of power in the 19th century was altered by European industrialization and nation building, and Western expansion posed a serious challenge to Muslims everywhere.
The relationship between the Ottomans and the Europeans was still strong even after the Ottoman Empire began to decline in the 16th century.
The Ottomans fell behind western Europe in science, industrial skill, and military technology in the late 18th century.
The sultanate's authority within the empire was enhanced by a transformation of the army.
There were two main obstacles to overcome.
The decline of the sultan's "slave army," the janissary corps, was reflected by Ottoman military weakness.
The janissaries became a corrupt and privileged hereditary caste after they were trained to serve in the Ottoman infantry's elite corps.
The empire was not a centralized military state.
Local governors were trying to establish their own governments and hereditary dynasties as they became increasingly independent.
The janissaries refused to use Christian equipment when Sultan Selim III tried to reorganize the army.
Selim was executed in a palace revolution after they revolted.
Selim's successor, the reform minded Mahmud II, proceeded cautiously, picking loyal officers and building his dependable artillery corps.
The palace was destroyed when the janissaries revolted and charged at it.
The rise of Muhammad Ali, the Ottoman governor in Egypt, was too late to stop because of the destruction and abolition of the janissaries.
The Ottoman province of Syria was occupied by his forces in the 19th century.
Britain, Russia, and Austria helped the Ottoman sultan survive.
The Ottomans were saved again in 1839, after they were routed trying to drive Muhammad Ali from Syria.
Russian diplomatic efforts, British and Austrian naval blockades, and threats of military action convinced Muhammad Ali to return Syria to the Ottomans.
European powers preferred a weak Ottoman state to a strong Muslim entity under Muhammad Ali.
After realizing their precarious position, liberal Ottoman statesmen launched an era of radical reforms, which lasted until 1876 and culminated in a constitution and a parliament.
The reforms were designed to remake the empire on a western European model.
The new decree called for Muslim, Christian, and Jewish equality before the law, in business, security of life and property, and a modernized administration and military.
British advisers demanded that new commercial laws allow free importation of foreign goods, as well as allowing foreign merchants to operate freely throughout the empire.
Slavery in the empire was reduced under British pressure.
Growing numbers of the elite and the upwardly mobile embraced Western education, Western manners and artistic styles, and accepted secular values.
The reforms were designed to remake the Ottoman Empire on a western European model.
The Tanzimat was intended to bring revolutionary modernization such as that experienced Restoration.
The implementation of the reforms required a new generation of well-trained and trustworthy officials.
The growth of nationalism among Christian subjects in the Balkans resulted in crises and defeats that undermined all reform efforts.
The Ottoman initiatives did not curb the appetite of Western imperialism, and European bankers gained a stranglehold on Ottoman finances.
The Ottoman state had to place its finances in the hands of Europeans in 1875.
The painting suggests that Ottoman leaders became well versed in European languages and culture.
They mastered the game of power politics, playing one European state against another, and securing the Ottoman Empire's survival.
The servants on the right are black.
Equal rights for citizens and religious communities did not create greater unity within the state.
The Great Powers' interference made religious disputes worse.
Sultan Abdulhamid II abandoned the model of European liberalism and became the most dependable supporter of Islamic conservatives.
The Ottoman Empire lost control of its vast territories.
The Ottomans granted Serbia local autonomy in 1816 after Serbian nationalists rebelled.
The Greeks won their independence in 1830 after revolting against Ottoman rule.
The Ottomans failed to defend their Islamic provinces in North Africa as they dealt with the Christian uprisings in Europe.
The French began their conquest of Algeria in 1830.
Russia and a coalition of Balkan countries pushed southward into Ottoman lands and won the war.
The European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empire met at the Congress of Berlin in 1878 to formally recognize the independence of several countries.
Great Britain took over Cyprus.
The meeting was weakened and humiliated by the Ottoman Empire, which was labeled the "sick man of Europe" in the European press.
The combination of declining international power and conservative tyranny eventually led to a resurgence of the modernizing impulse among idealistic Turkish exiles in Europe and young army officers in Istanbul.
Sultan Abdulhamid II was overthrown in the 1908 revolution.
The sultan was forced to implement reforms after being made his brother's figurehead.
After the fall of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, the Young Turks helped prepare the way for a secular Turkey.
The birth of modern secular Turkey was helped by the revolutionaries who seized power in the revolution of 1908.
The land of the pharaohs was ruled by foreigners from 525 B.C.E.
As France and Britain prepared for war in Europe, Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt and occupied it for three years, threatening British access to India.
The power vacuum left by the French withdrawal was filled by an Albanian-born Turkish general.
Muhammad Ali was appointed Egypt's governor by Sultan Selim III in 1805 and set out to build his own state on the strength of a large, powerful army.
He promoted modern industry and reformed the government.
Muhammad Ali's ambitious strategy seemed to work for a time, but it foundered when his armies occupied Syria and he threatened the Ottoman sultan.
Muhammad Ali agreed to peace with his Ottoman overlords in the face of European military might and diplomatic entreaties.
He was given hereditary rule over Egypt and Sudan.
Muhammad Ali established an Egyptian state within the Ottoman Empire by his death in 1849.
The European market had profound social implications.
Egyptian peasants were mostly self-sufficient in growing food on state-owned land.
Private landholdings were carved out of the state domain by high-ranking officials and members of Muhammad Ali's family.
Europeans were attracted to the banks of the Nile by Muhammad Ali's modernization policies.
Europeans were army officers, engineers, doctors, government officials, and police officers.
Others were involved in trade, finance, and shipping.
Commercial agriculture in Egypt is being steered toward exports by Europeans living in the country.
Europeans had important commercial and legal privileges and formed an economic elite.
In 1863, Muhammad Ali's grandson began his rule as Egypt's khedive, or prince.
He was a westernizing autocrat who received his education at France's leading military academy and dreamed of building a vast empire in northwestern Africa.
He promoted cotton production.
The Suez Canal was completed by a French company in 1869, shortening the voyage from Europe to Asia by thousands of miles.
Modern boulevards and Western hotels were acquired by Cairo.
"My country is no longer in Africa, we are now part of Europe," said Ismail.
The political and economic changes were accompanied by major cultural and intellectual changes.
Young, European-educated Egyptians helped spread new skills and ideas in the bureaucracy as the Arabic of the mass became the official language.
A host of writers, intellectuals, and religious thinkers responded to the novel conditions with innovative ideas that had a powerful impact in Egypt and other Muslim societies.
Three influential figures who represented broad families of thought were important.
The teacher and writer, Jamal al-Din alAfghani, argued for the purification of Islamic religious belief, Muslim unity, and a revolutionary overthrow of corrupt Muslim rulers and foreign exploiters.
The modern Islamic reform movement was launched by the more moderate Muhammad Abduh.
Abduh concluded that Muslims should adopt a flexible, reasoned approach to change, modernity, science, social questions, and foreign ideas.
Those who found inspiration in the West in the late nineteenth century were represented by the writer.
The status of women is tied to the status of a nation.
The efforts to transform Cairo were successful.
Europeans could easily visit the country that their governments dominated.
Ordinary Europeans were lured to exotic lands by travel books like this colorful "Official Guide" to an exhibition on Cairo held in Berlin.
During his rule, Egypt changed rapidly, but his projects were expensive and reckless.
The Egyptian government couldn't pay the interest on its debt by 1876.
Rather than allow Egypt to go bankrupt, France and Great Britain stepped in and forced Ismail to appoint French and British Commissioners to oversee Egyptian finances.
There was a violent reaction to foreign financial control.
The bloody anti-European riots in Alexandria in 1882 were caused by continued diplomatic pressure which forced Ismail to abdicate in favor of his weak son, Tewfiq.
The British fleet bombarded Alexandria, and a British force occupied all of Egypt.
British armies were in Egypt until 1956.
The khedive was a puppet of the Ottoman Empire, but the British maintained that Egypt was an independent province.
General Evelyn Baring, the British consul, ruled the country after 1884.
Baring was a reformer.
He made improvements to the conditions for peasants.
Foreign bondholders received interest payments while Egyptian nationalists did not.
The leader of 800-244-0167 800-244-0167 is Muhammad Ali.
Historians have different interpretations of the man, and his essence remains a mystery.
Muhammad Ali was sent by the Ottomans to oppose the French occupation of Egypt.
He was the Ottoman governor of Egypt in 1805.
The Mamluks were still rivals.
Originally an elite corps of Turkish slave soldiers, the Mamluks became a semifeudal military ruling class living off the Egyptian peasantry.
The Mamluk chiefs and their retainers were invited to a banquet by Muhammad Ali after he offered to make peace.
All the Mamluk leaders were killed when his troops opened fire on the guests.
Muhammad Ali embarked on a program of radical reforms after eliminating his enemies.
Most of the cultivated land was reclaimed for the state domain.
State agencies were established to sell agricultural goods for his own profit.
After the introduction of high-quality cotton in 1821, commercial agriculture geared to exports to Europe developed rapidly.
The army of Muhammad Ali was recast along European lines.
French officers were recruited to train the soldiers.
Hospitals, schools of medicine and languages, and secular education were needed as the military grew.
Some Egyptians and young Turks were sent to Europe for advanced study.
The ruler financed factories to make uniforms and banned the import of European goods to protect Egypt's infant industries.
One-fourth of Egypt's cotton was made into cloth in the 1830s.
Muhammad Ali expanded his army to one hundred thousand men by drafting Egyptian peasants into the military for the first time.
This force conquered the Ottoman province of Syria, threatened the sultan in Istanbul, and triggered European intervention.
Muhammad Ali was recognized by his Ottoman overlord as Egypt's hereditary ruler in 1841, but he had to give up Syria and abolish his monopolies.
The old ruler lost his mind and his factories disappeared.
The basis for Egyptian independence came from his ambitious state-building projects.
The escape from poverty and Western domination was promised by state-sponsored industrialization, but only by European intervention and British insistence on free trade.
Some historians are questioning these views.
They think of Muhammad Ali as an Ottoman adventurer.
He intended to carve out a small empire for himself and his children after him, and he did not aim for national independence for Egypt.
His success, which depended on heavy taxes and brutal army service, led to Egyptian nationalism among the Arabic-speaking mass, but that new nationalism was directed against Muhammad Ali and his Turkish-speaking team.
Research into this leader's life will help resolve conflicting interpretations.
The Industrial Revolution transformed economic relations across the face of the earth.
As a result, the world's total income grew as never before.
Western nations used their military power to force non-Western nations to open their doors.
The largest share of gains from trade flowed to the West, resulting in a stark divide between rich and poor countries.
The Industrial Revolution allowed world regions that industrialized in the 19th century to increase their wealth and power more than those that did not.
The gap between the industrializing regions and the nonindustrializing regions grew steadily throughout the 19th century.
The structure of the world economy was built into the pattern of global development.
The have-not peoples and nations were far outnumbering the haves in the evolution of a world of economic haves and have-nots.
The average living standard was not higher in Europe than in the rest of the world.
By 1914, the average person in the wealthiest countries had an income four or five times that of the average person in Africa and Asia.
Before World War I, industrialization in Great Britain and other developed countries led to a rise in average income and well-being.
There is a lot of debate about the reasons for the income disparity.
The West used science, technology, capitalist organization, and even its critical worldview to create its wealth and well-being according to one school of interpretation.
The West used its political, economic, and military power to steal from other countries, according to an opposing school.