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9 -- Part 2: The Islamic World
The New Testament is a collection of essays on the example and teachings of Jesus, but the Qur'an is a col lection of directives issued in God's name.
Its organization isn't strictly logical.
The commentators explained the historical circumstances behind each revelation.
A strict code of moral behavior is prescribed by The Qur'an.
A Muslim needs to recite the pro tenets of the Islamic faith, which include faith in God and Muhammad as his prophet.
During the holy month of Ramadan, a believer must fast and pray five times a day in God and Muhammad, as well as make a pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca once in his or her lifetime.
Weury in business contributes to the poor.
Judgment Day Muhammad's message challenge and the importance of the life to come are warned by Islam.
According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad's preaching at first did not appeal to many people.
Muhammad challenged the power of the local elite and the pilgrimage-based local economy when he preached a transformation of the social order.
Muhammad's teachings began to have an impact at Medina, as he attracted increasing numbers of believers.
The conflict between Mecca and Medina began when caravans were raided en route to Mecca.
Mecca capitulated after eight years of conflict.
Muhammad welded all the Bedouin tribes by the time he died.
Muhammad was a political strategist and a religious teacher.
The umma who share a religious faith and was to be a religious and political community led by Muhammad for the achievement of commitment rather than a tribal tie.
The southern Arab tribal confederations were always warring.
The political consolidation of the tribal confederations was fostered by the idea of an absolute higher authority.
Islam spread far beyond Arabia after the Prophet's death.
The Christian Greek- Byzantine Empire and the Zoroastrian Persian-Sassanid Empire ruled the Middle East in the sixth century.
Neither empire possessed religious unity.
Both had large Jew ish populations and both were considered heretical by Orthodox Greeks.
The two empires fought each other fiercely during the fourth through sixth centuries, trying to expand their territories at the expense of the other.
They wanted to tax the rich trade coming from Arabia and the Indian Ocean region.
Many peripheral societies were involved in the conflict.
The growth of Muslim states was aided by the dis order.
Umar and Uthman launched an attack against the Byzantine and Sassanid Empires.
The rapid expansion of Islam testifies to the Arabs' superior fighting skills, religious zeal, and economic ambition as well as to their enemies' weakness.
Plague, famine, and political troubles contributed to Muslim victory there.
The commercial and intel ec tual hub of Alexandria was taken by the Muslims from Egypt.
The armies swept into the pire at the same time.
The collapse of the empire was signaled by the Muslim defeat of the Persians at Nihawand.
The Muslims moved eastward into Central Asia.
The farthest Islamic pene tration into Central Asia was marked by the clash of Muslim horsemen with a Chinese army.
The Islamic community in northern India was founded by a Muslim force from southern Persia.
In the eleventh century Muslim dynasties from Afghanistan carried Islam deeper into the Indian subcontinent.
The Arab forces crossed the Strait of Gibraltar.
The kingdom of Spain was easily defeated in 711 at the Guadalete River by the Muslims.
The Muslim occupation of parts of southern France did not last long after the Franks defeated Arab armies in a battle near the city of Tours.
The internal view of Muslim historians was that God supported the Islamic faith.
The view used to be that religious fervor was the main driving force.
Historians point to a combination of Arab military advantages and the political weaknesses of their opponents in order to emphasize religious zeal.
The Byzantine and Sassanid Empires had just fought a century-long war and were weakened by the plague.
The military strength and tactics of the Arabs are equal.
Soldiers received a monthly ration of food and an annual cash stipend.
They had to be available for military service.
The Muslim armies did not try to convert or recruit warriors from conquered peoples.
Many recruits in later campaigns to the east were recent converts to Islam.
Christians and Jews played down the gains of their new masters in order to minimize the damage done to their former status.
The conquering Arabs were seen by Jews as instruments for their escape from Greek and Sassanid persecution.
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