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12 -- Part 5: Cultural Exchange in Central and Southern Asia to
The manuscript shows that the army of the Mongols used intel to attack the walled city of The Mongols.
There are catapults on both sides.
In north China, they appealed to the Khi tans to join them in attacking the Jurchens.
They used the resentment of Christians against their Muslim rulers in Syria.
The success of the Mongols in ruling vast territories was due in large part to their willingness to incorporate other ethnic groups into their armies and governments.
Those who served the Mongols loyally were rewarded.
Uighurs, Tibetans, Persians, Chinese, and Russians came to hold powerful positions in the government.
The catapults that helped reduce Chinese cities in the 1270s were operated by Muslims.
The purpose of fighting was to get rich, and they loot the settlements they conquered, taking whatever they wanted, including the residents.
Land would be given to military units to be governed by the recipients.
serfs would be given to those who worked the land.
The capital city of modern Mongolia was built to bring it up to the level of the cities they conquered.
The Mongols realized that appropriating the wealth and human resources of the settled lands was not as good as getting regular revenue from them.
A Chinese-educated Khitan who had been working for the Jurchens in China would make a lot of money.
Ordinary Chinese found this tion of taxes to be more oppressive than traditional Chinese methods since most for the privilege.
There was no pan-Asian Mongol Empire by the second half of the 13th century.
The successor states of the Mongols were hostile to each other.
He was held by his cousin, who held the Golden Horde in south Russia, and he had little contact with them.
The regions went their separate ways after the Mongols adapted their methods of government to the traditions of each place they ruled.
The Mongols avoided many Chinese prac tices.
The rulers spent their summers in Mongolia.
Mon gol women were only allowed into the palace if they were discouraged from marrying Chinese.
The princes preferred to live in yurts on the palace grounds rather than in Beijing's grand palaces.
Chinese were treated as inferior to non- Chinese people.
The Turkish groups in Central Asia merged with the Mongols and converted to Islam.
Russian princes and lords were allowed to rule their territories as long as they paid adequate tribute, even though Russia was not a strong centralized state in the 13th century.
The traditions of the caliphate continued in the Middle East as the Il-khans were more active as rulers.
The traditions of the Mongols were maintained in the country.
The control of the mongols in the khanates lasted a century.
The civil war in China in the mid-fourteenth century led to the fall of the Mongol dynasty.
There was a loss of power in the empire.
The Golden Horde was able to hold on for another century.
Timur, also known as Tamerlane, emerged as a new conqueror as the rule of the Mongols declined.
Persia, north India, southern Russia, and beyond.
The terror tactics that the Mongols had mastered, massacring the citi serve, and how did their style of govern zens of cities that resisted are what his armies used.
Timur's empire fell.
The Mongol governments did more to encourage the movement of people and goods than any other political entities.
The spread of the plague and the un willing movement of enslaved captives was aided by it.
The practice of transporting people from the lands they conquered brought people into contact with each other in new ways.
The admin istrators from China, Persia, and the Middle East were recruited by the Mongols.
The Uighur Turks of Chi nese Central Asia were special because of their familiarity with Chinese civilization and their ability to communicate in Turkish.
The Mongols were very open to religious experts from all over the world.
Europeans made their way to China and Mongolia in the past.
Popes and kings sent envoys to the Mongol court in order to get the Mongols to side with them in their long-standing conflict with Muslim forces over the Holy Land.
Travelers were able to find Christians who had been cut off from the Asia, which increased knowledge of distant lands.
The Venetian Marco Polo was the most famous European visitor.
He said that he was warmly re ceived by Khubilai.
He spread the idea that Asia was a land of wealth and prosperity.
In Marco Polo's lifetime, some skeptics did not believe his story, and now some scholars theorize that he may have learned about China from Persian merchants he met in the Middle East.
The popularity of Marco Polo's book contributed to European interest in finding new routes to Asia.
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