The Bolsheviks, a group of Communist revolu tionaries, were convinced that they were in the forefront of history after America and the Great War of 1914-1920.
Russia's involvement in the war was promised to be ended by the Bolsheviks.
The train stations, post offices, and telegraph offices were taken over by armed Bolsheviks.
Others took control of the Winter Palace, established a dictatorship, and called for an end to the war.
The dictatorship of the government that promised freedom for all working people unleashed a reign of terror, as noted by the disil usioned Bolshevik.
For the first time in history, the Bolsheviks announced that their government was both perfect and non-existent.
Anyone foolish enough to oppose the revolution will be killed by Lenin.
He took control of banks, businesses, church properties, and great landed estates and created a brutal secret police force.
"All is allowed to us," he said.
There was a civil war in Russia after the Bolshevik Revolution, with the anti- Bolshevik White army fighting the Communist Red army.
Wilson was horrified by the idea of a Communist Russia and sent 8,000 U.S. sol diers to Siberia.
The military supplies sent to the Russians were supposed to be retrieved by the Siberian Expeditionary Force.
The general promised not to take part in any "crusade" against Bolshevism.
Wilson was involved anyway.
The U.S. troops returned to America in April 1920 after nineteen months of unsuccessful military efforts against the Bolsheviks.
Russian Communists believed that America tried to overturn their revolution.
Wilson wanted the Great War to be the last world war.
In September 1917, he appointed a group of 150 experts in politics, history, geography, and forign policy to draft a peace plan.
Wilson made a dramatic presentation of his Fourteen Points to Congress on January 8, 1918, describing his proposal as the only feasible program for peace.
The first five points endorsed the open conduct of diplomacy rather than backroom deals and secret treaties, the recognition of neutral nations' right to continue maritime commerce in time of war, and the removal of international trade barriers.
Wilson demanded that the victors follow the principle of self- determination in order to allow for the development of their own independent, democratic nations.
Point thirteen created a new nation for Poland, which had been dominated by the Russians in the east and Germans in the west.
Wilson's postwar scheme called for a permanent league of nations to preserve global peace.
The reaction was positive.
African American leaders asked the president to add an end to racial discrimination to the Fourteen Points.
Wilson did not reply.
Growing discontent was caused by food and fuel shortages.
Workers went on strike.
The conditions were worse in Russia.
Russian soldiers were killed or wounded in the war when Vladimir Lenin took power in 1917.
The world would be freed from war only by a global revolution in which capitalism was replaced by communism, according to Lenin.
He wanted Russia out of the war as soon as possible.
On March 3, 1918, Lenin signed a peace agreement with Germany.
Russia lost a lot of its population, coal and wheat production, and heavy industry as a result of the treaty.
Russia had to pay $46 million to Germany.
He needed to concentrate on the Russian civil war so he was willing to accept such a harsh peace.
The Germans could focus on the Western Front with Russia out.
The first offensive by the Germans in France and Belgium was designed to win the war before the Americans arrived.
The British Fifth Army was destroyed by the Germans in May.
The Germans lost their steam in April.
On April 5, the German commander called a halt because so many soldiers were exhausted and demoralized, convinced that their hope for victory had been dashed by their inability to sustain the supply lines needed for such a widespread advance.
French and British leaders pressed Wilson to get troops into the fighting.
650,000 American soldiers were in Europe by the end of the month.
They were ready to fight.
General John J. commanded the U.S. forces at the Battle of Belleau Wood.
The Germans were driven back by "Black Jack" and the French.
A French officer remarked that the Americans were giving blood for the Allied cause.
An American unit was urged to retreat by a French officer.
Sergeant York, an American original, was one of the millions who served in the Great War.
He was born in the mountains of north- central Tennessee, near the Kentucky border.
He and his family lived in a log cabin with torn mail- order catalogs.
York worked in his father's blacksmith shop after leaving school to help support his family.
He went through a "wild" phase as a teen, but his hijinks ended on New Year's Day in 1915.
York, the best shot in Tennessee, did not want to be part of the war.
The government thought.
He was told to report to Camp Gordon in Georgia in November 1917.
After basic training, York stayed up all night praying.
He decided by the morning that he was a righteous man if he was right in his own soul.
When he registered for the draft he said he didn't want to fight.
There are machine guns on a ridge.
York returned fire after being cornered.
He shot with great accuracy when a German helmet popped up.
A German officer and five soldiers charged York, who dropped his rifle and pulled out a pistol.
Others surrendered after York killed all six of them.
By that time, York had killed twenty- eight Germans and captured thirty- five machine guns.
They captured and killed more Germans along the way, and then marched their prisoners to the rear.
The number of prisoners was counted by a tenant.
The 23rd Infantry, 2nd Division, fired machine guns at the Germans from what was left of the Argonne Forest in France.
York returned to his home along the Tennessee- Kentucky border after appearing before Congress.
The Allied offensive began on Septem ber 26, 1918, and involved British and French armies as well as the U.S. troops.
It was the largest U.S. action of the war and resulted in 117,000 deaths.
The outnumbered Germans were sent reeling in retreat by the Allied offensive.
Wilson was asked by the German government for peace negoti ations based on his Fourteen Points.
The plan was accepted as a basis of negotiations by both British and French leaders.
Germany was on the verge of collapsing by the end of October 1918.
The revolutionaries went through the streets.
Military leaders demanded that the civilian government ask for an armistice after Germany's allies dropped out of the war.
A republic was proclaimed after the German kaiser resigned.
An official cease- fire took effect on the morning of November 11.
The Germans had to turn over 150,000 railroad freight cars, 5,000 locomotives, 5,000 trucks, 1,700 war planes, and 25,000 machine guns.
They were assured that Pres ident Wilson's Fourteen Points would be the basis for the upcoming peace conference.
After 1,563 days of terrible warfare, the most needless wars were finally over at the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month.
Harry Truman, who would become America's president in 1945, could see a German soldier in the distance.
At 11 a.m., the German stood, took off his hel met, bowed his head, and walked away.
The world celebrated the end of the war.
W. E. B wrote "The world awakes."
The years of terrible night are over.
The son was not as happy.
A Salvation Army worker is writing a letter for civilization to a wounded soldier.
The United States lost 53,408 men in combat during the war.
More than 63,000 U.S. soldiers and sailors died of various diseases as a result of the 1918 flu epidemic.
200,000 Americans were wounded.
Germany's war dead totaled 1.6 million, France lost more than one million, and Great Britain lost more than 600,000.
Europe's economies were ruined by the war.
George Luks captured the joy and patriotism of the night of Germany's surrender.
The United States emerged as the world's dominant power.
The peacemaking process was urged to be taken charge of by Colonel House on June 25, 1918.
House was correct.
The peace agreement ending the Great War was not in the positive light they thought it would be.
Wilson showed himself at his best and worst during the making of the peace agreement.
His vision of a better world was embodied by the Fourteen Points.
The Great War 1914-1920 will be another world war within a generation.
Wilson's grand efforts at global peacemaking failed because of his own fault.
Whatever the merits of President Wilson's peace plan, his efforts to implement it proved clumsy and self- defeating.
He made a lot of decisions that would haunt him.
He went to the peace conference in Paris despite the advice of his staff and European leaders.
The president left the United States for six months.
Wilson lost touch with political developments at home during his time abroad.
His second mistake was politics.
Wilson urged voters toelect a Democratic Congress as a sign of their approval of his policies in handling the war and the peace.
He begged the public not to criticize his leadership.
Republicans who had supported Wilson's war measures were not happy.
Western farmers were upset with government price ceilings on wheat.
The Democrats lost control of Congress in the elections.
It was bad news for Wilson's peacemaking efforts since any treaty to end the war would have to be approved by at least two thirds of the Senate.
Wilson's negotiating strength with the Allies was undermined by the former president and his friend.
Wilson dispatched Colonel House and several aides to Europe to convince Allied leaders to embrace the Fourteen Points.
Wilson's efforts were weakened when he refused to appoint a Republican to the peace delegation.
He appointed Harry White, a Republican.
Wilson's participation in the Paris Peace Conference would allow him to convince Europe to follow him in creating a very different postwar world.
As Wilson prepared to head for Europe, Ray Stannard Baker wrote that the president has yet to prove his greatness.
Wilson's entrance on the European stage in December 1918 was a success.
Millions of Europeans welcomed him as their hero.
Wilson believed that only he could guide the peacemaking efforts.
Wilson was committed to shaping a peace treaty and postwar world based on principles of justice, fairness, and self- determination.
The Great War of 1914-1920 was the height of America.
Wilson had to negotiate with tough- minded, wily statesmen who resented his efforts to forge a peace settlement modeled on American values.
Wilson did not consult them about his Fourteen Points proposal before he announced it to the world.
The European leaders would force the American president to abandon his ideals.
The Paris Peace Conference ended in June 1919.
There was no time to waste.
The Ottoman Empire was in ruins.
Food and lawlessness were common across Europe.
The threat of revolution hung over Central Europe as the Communists took control of the defeated nations.
The peace conference dealt with a lot of controversial issues, including the need to create new nations and the need to change the maps of Europe and the Middle East.
Almost 400 mem bers from the British delegation were specialists in political geography or economics.
The Paris Peace Conference was trolled by the Big Four: the prime ministers of Britain, France, and Italy, and the president of the United States.
Germany and its allies were not allowed to attend.
Russia was not invited.
The French premier known as "The Tiger" was not a fan of President Wilson's idealistic preaching.
Wilson claimed that "America is the only idealistic nation in the world" and that talking with him was like talking to Jesus Christ.
The French leader said that God gave them the Ten Commandments.
The French and British, led by Prime Minister David Lloyd George, insisted that Wilson agree to their proposals to weaken Germany and gain territories from defeated Austria.
He believed that a world peace organization would end war by resolving international disputes.
Wilson called it the "heart of the League" because it allowed member nations to impose military and economic sanctions against military aggres sors.
Wilson predicted that the league would make military action to preserve peace unnecessary.
On February 14, 1919, Wilson presented the final draft of the league cov enant to the Allies and left Paris for a ten day visit home, where he faced growing opposition among Republicans.
Theodore Roosevelt thought that the League of Nations would revive German militarism.