Skinner asserts that learning occurs without thought.
Cognitive theorists argue that classical and operant conditioning have a cognitive component.
In classical conditioning, theorists argue that the subjects respond to the CS because they expect it to be followed by the US.
In operant conditioning, cognitive psychologists suggest that the subject is aware of the consequences of their responses and can act to maximize their reinforcement.
The contiguity model of classical conditioning is based on the idea that the more times two things are combined, the better the learning will be.
The strength of the response is determined by togetherness.
Robert Rescorla revised the model to account for more complex circumstances.
A dog is presented with a bell and food ten times in a row.
Dog 2, Sparky, also experiences bell and food.
There are five trials in which food is presented without the bell and five more trials in which the bell is rung but no food is presented.
Even though a model based on contiguity would assume that the two dogs would respond the same, you will most likely see that Rocco will.
According to the model of classical conditioning, the strength of an association between two events is related to the number of times they have been together.
Rescorla's contingency model of classical conditioning suggests that it is necessary for one event to reliably predict another for a strong association between the two to result.
Rescorla's model rests on a cognitive view of classical conditioning.
A depends upon B and vice versa.
The presence of one event reliably predicts the presence of the other.
The food is contingent on the presentation of the bell, and one does not appear without the other.
Sometimes the bell rings and no snacks are served, other times snacks appear without the bell, and sometimes they appear together.
In her case, the relationship between the US and the CS is unclear.
The difference in their responses suggests that their thoughts and expectations influence their learning.
There are a number of different kinds of learning described by cognitive theorists.
Observational learning, latent learning, abstract learning, and insight learning are included.
People and animals learn a lot by observing others.
Watching children play house gives us an indication of what they have learned from watching their families.
Albert Bandura studied observational learning a lot in formulating his social-learning theory.
This type of learning only occurs between members of the same species.
Modeling consists of observation and imitation.
A young boy can learn how to hit a ball by watching his older sister.
He watched her play baseball with the children in his backyard.
He tried to imitate her behavior by picking up a bat.
A mental representation of observed behavior is needed in order to enable the person or animal to imitate it.
Children learn violent behaviors from watching violent television programs and violent adult models.
Bandura, Ross, and Ross's classic Bobo doll experiment illustrated the connection.
The inflatable Bobo doll that would bounce back up after being hit was one of the things that children were exposed to.
The children who had witnessed the aggressive adult models exhibited similar aggressive behavior when they were given the chance to play alone in a room full of toys.
The control group's children were less likely to aggress against Bobo than the adults in the experimental condition.
Edward Tolman studiedtent learning.
Latent learning is learning that is hidden until a reinforcement is given.
The famous experiment conducted by Tolman showed that sometimes learning occurs, but not immediately.
Three groups of rats ran through a maze on a series of trials.
Each time a group completed the maze, it received a reward, and the rats' performance improved over time.
The performance of another group of rats improved slightly over the course of the trials, but they never got a reward.
The first half of the trials did not reward a third group of rats, but they were given a reward in the second half.
The group that never got a reward was very similar to this group during the first half of the trials.
The third group's performance improved dramatically when it began to be rewarded for finishing the maze.
The rats must have learned their way around the maze during the first set of trials.
They had no reason to run the maze quickly.
Tolman said the improvement in maze-running time was due to learning.
He suggested that they made a mental representation of the maze during the first half of the trials and that they would get a reward for it.
Learning simply to press a bar or peck a disk in order to get a reward is not abstract learning.
Animals in Skinner boxes seem to be able to comprehend certain concepts.
Pigeons have learned topeck pictures if they are pictures of chairs.
Pigeons have been shown a particular shape and rewarded in one series of trials when they picked the same shape out of two choices and in another set of trials when they pecked at the different shapes.
Thorndike and Skinner had argued that pigeons can understand concepts and not just form S-R connections.
Wolfgang Kohler studied insight learning in Chimpanzees.
Insight learning happens when someone learns how to solve a problem.
You may have had the experience of skipping over a problem on a test only to realize later how to solve it.
Kohler argued that the sudden strength of the S-R connection suggested by the behaviorists caused learning to happen in this way.
He watched how Chimpanzees solved problems.
Kohler suspended a banana from the ceiling in a study.
The boxes in the room were not high enough to allow the Chimpanzees to reach the banana.
The Chimpanzees spent most of their time not working toward a solution.
They would run around, jump, and be generally upset about their inability to grab the snack until they pile the boxes on top of each other and grab the banana.
Kohler believed that the solution wouldn't happen until the Chimpanzees had a clue about how to solve the problem.
Five suggested answers or completions are followed by each of the questions or incomplete statements.
Pick the one that is the best.
They play scary-sounding music just before a scary film.
I dread the event when I hear the music.
You can't teach your dog to do a somersault.
Tina likes to play with animals, but she can't find them in the rain.
Before the doors of the elevator close, a coworker enters the elevator.
Mumbling about forgetting something, you immediately leave.
Many psychologists think that children of parents who beat them are more likely to beat their own children.
His parents gave him a quarter every day he made his bed.
He helped with other chores and started to make his siblings' beds.
Before his parents will read him a story, he has to brush his teeth, put on his pajamas, kiss his grandmother, and put away his toys.
There is a girl poking a boy in Mr.Clayton's class.