Edited Invalid date
20 -- Part 9: The Islamic World Powers
The first empire to fall was the Safavid Empire.
The Ottomans and the Mughals had standing armies because of the revenue base that Persia did not have.
Increased foreign aggression was encouraged by the decline in the strength of the army.
In 1722, the Afghans invaded from the east, and were able to repel the Ottomans from the west.
Thousands of officials and mem bers of the shah's family were executed.
None of the potential leaders were able to unite all of Persia.
Shi'a reli gious institutions grew stronger.
Poor leadership was a problem for the Ottoman Empire.
The sultans would be strong.
As part of their education, the sultan's sons gained experience as governors of provinces and on the battlefield.
After the sultan's death, any son who wanted to succeed had to fight his brothers for the throne, and the sultan would have his enemies executed.
The system led to a succession of capable, determined men.
The tradition was abandoned after Suleiman's reign.
The sultan's sons were brought up in the harem and kept there as adults.
They weren't given roles in the government.
The three great Islamic empires were close to each other.
Many of their neighbors were Muslim.
Political groups were formed around military leaders and palace women.
The military and political ranks were filled by Muslims in the contest for political favor.
The military strength of the Ottoman Empire declined.
The loss of the Turkish fleet by the Spanish off the coast of Greece in 1571 marked the end of Ottoman domi nance in the Mediterranean.
By signing a peace treaty with Austria, the Ottomans lost the major European provinces of Hungary and Transylvania, along with the tax revenues they had provided.
The Ottoman armies did not keep up with the innovations in drill, command, and control that were transforming European armies.
The Ottoman armies lost territory along the northern and eastern borders in the late 17th century.
The eastern border of the empire was given up in 1730.
Local governors in North Africa started hereditary dynasties.
In India, the old Turkish practice of allowing heirs to fight for the throne led to battles over succession and strong rulers.
The military chal lenges proved difficult there as well.
Aurangzeb conquered the south after defeating his father and brothers.
The strongest opposition came from the Marathas, a mili tant Hindu group.
Aurangzeb led repeated sorties through the Deccan.
The Maratha guerrilla bands were unable to destroy him because he took many forts.
Thirteen years of succession struggles followed Aurangzeb's death.
The governors of the Mughal provinces ruled alone, giving little or no power to the throne at Delhi.
The Marathas constituted the gravest threat to Mughal authority.
The Mughal Dynasty came to an end.
In 1739, the Persian adventurer Nadir Shah invaded India, defeated the Mughal army, and took a huge amount of treasure.
The Mughal government's prestige was taken by Nadir Shah when he withdrew to Afghanistan.
The Marathas were defeated by the Afghans at Panipat in 1761 in the battle for control of the Punjab and northern India.
India no longer had a state strong enough to check the penetration of the Europeans.
Economic difficulties put strain on the state.
A long period of peace in the late sixteenth century and again in the mid-eighteenth century led to a doubling of the population.
The creased population and the "little ice age" of the mid-seventeenth century meant that the land could not sustain so many people.
The return of demobilized sol diers made the problem worse.
Inflation, famine, and widespread revolts resulted.
The empire began to decentralize as the center of gravity shifted from the capital to the provinces.
Increasing provincial autonomy made it more difficult to defend themselves, as it drew more people into political participation, thus laying the groundwork for later nationalism.
View flashcards and assignments made for the note
Getting your flashcards
Privacy & Terms