Not only the traditional power structure, but also much of thought, literature, and art, as well as social and economic structures that were older than civilization itself, were changed in a hundred years.
The Industrial Revolution was the greatest shift in civilization during the 19th century.
The steam engine's use as a source of reliable power for machines to mass-produce cotton textiles began the revolution in Britain.
The partnership of machines to produce and use power on an unprecedented scale spread from Britain to many other Western and non-Western countries in the 19th century.
The rise and fall of entire industries, as well as fast- moving technical advances, became a permanent feature of Western civilization.
The change in human ways of life was the greatest since the Agricultural Revolution.
Giant capitalist corporations were formed to finance and manage new industries.
The elite was made up of captains of industry, stock exchange tycoons, and government bureaucrats.
The sons and daughters of peasants crowded from the countryside into the cities to bring in the workers needed for the new industries.
There were new conflicts between management and labor over the distribution of wealth.
Science was one of the main influences on the way of life of Western civilization in the 19th century.
The progress of scientific discovery has been gradual since the 17th century.
Social scientists began to apply measurement, observation, and experiment more or less systematically to society, culture, and human nature after being impressed by these successes.
The origin and development of living beings was removed from the natural world because of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution.
There was a renewed and bitter ideological conflict over the relationship between science and religion.
Darwin's idea of the struggle for existence became a source of inspiration for many secular ideologies, which saw human society as an arena of combat, and wanted to feel that the victory of their side was a scientific certainty.
The changes of the 19th century had an effect on literature and the arts.
The pull of the medieval, classical, and Christian past began to weaken.
Writers and artists found their themes in the life and objects of their own times--weary passengers in an overcrowded railroad car, for example, or a middle-class woman awakening to the meaninglessness of her life of pleasing her husband--rather than in previous eras.
New and contrasting styles evolved to depict such themes.
The Realists treated their subjects in full and accurate detail.
The Impressionists stripped detail to the bare minimum and carefully avoided social comment, so as to leave the most evocative "impression" of the scenes they portrayed.
The Realists and Impressionists were controversial because they rejected so much that it seemed like an essential part of the beauty and nobility of art.
As the West approached the great cultural divide that marked the beginning of the twentieth century, a civilization that was in any case transforming itself amid dispute and conflict became normal in the arts.
The Industrial Revolution was not planned.
It's remarkable that it ever happened, for it's not something that can be done easily or naturally.
Many of the developments that had transformed Europe and the rest of the world from the late Middle Ages onward paved the way for the Industrial Revolution.
The rise of capitalism created a class of merchants and manufacturers who were willing to take risks, as well as new forms of business organization that could be adapted to the needs of large industrial enterprises.
In the technical field, waterwheels used stronger sources of power than human or animal muscles, printing had set a precedent for complex mass production operations, and clocks provided an example of accurately functioning automatic machines.
The expectation was that scientific discovery would result in practical benefits.
Much of the world's trade was brought to the countries of western Europe by the growth of colonial empires, giving them wealth to invest in new technology and worldwide markets for their products.
By the 18th century, all of these developments had gone furthest in Britain.
The pattern of change spread to Europe, the Americas, and the Far East after the Industrial Revolution began.
The practice of land enclosure, which had been going on since the end of the Middle Ages, was speeding up in the course of the eighteenth century as English landlords increased their holdings and revenues.
The lord's tenants had access to the common lands of pasture, meadow, and wood lot under the old manorial regime.
The lands were gradually removed from common use and rented to individuals to farm.
The "open fields" of cultivated strips were switched into single plots and fenced in for individual use.
In the process of redistribution, landlords usually gained additional land, while tenants found that they could no longer make a living.
Large tracts of land were put under more efficient management because of the redistribution.
The landlords who were more ambitious were willing to experiment with improved methods.
They tried a number of new farming methods, including planting soil-renewing crops, and developing scientific breeding of livestock.
The result was an increase in output.
A pool of displaced farm workers were created by the revolution in agriculture.
Some hired themselves out to successful farm operators, while others turned to spinning or weaving.
They were prepared to go wherever they could make more money.
Cotton textiles, a product of India that was popular in many markets because it was comfortable, decorative, and cheaper than similar cloths such as fine linen or silk, was one of the goods that British merchants traded across the world.
If cotton cloth could be manufactured in Britain, the profits would be greater.
Cotton textiles were made by the domestic system but they were strong enough to be spun and woven by machines.
The first breakthrough was a multi-spindled spinning wheel.
Richard Arkwright's water-powered spinning "frame" came soon after.
The development of powered weaving looms was followed by advances in spinning.
These inventions were originally designed for use in the cotton industry and were adapted to woolen production as well.
Next to the building of factories was the logic of events.
The domestic system includes spinning and weaving.
The impact of the mac hine machines was not well suited to household use.
They had to be operated around the clock because they were a substantial capital investment.
They needed a source of power which was first supplied by the traditional waterwheels.
Power machines were set up in special establishments for a number of reasons.
Hundreds of workers were employed by Arkwright after he launched the first spinning mill.
His example was followed by other entrepreneurs.
The development of steam engines that could be built to be more powerful than waterwheels was the greatest boost to the building of factories.
The steam engine was developed in response to a problem in coal mining, where the tunnels were being dug too deep for the water to be drained from them by animal-powered pumps.
Newcomen was able to build a machine that would do the job because he knew about the 17th century discoveries about the behavior of water.
The steam engine was the first modern technical device to owe its existence to science.
James Watt and other practical inventors made improvements to Newcomen's machine, increasing its power and turning a wheel.
The steam engine became the main source of power in the factories and was adapted to both water and land transportation.
Manchester, the headquarters of the industrialized cotton industry, andLiverpool, the seaport through which Manchester imported raw cotton from the United States and exported finished textiles to customers in every continent, were linked five years later.
Within twenty years, steam trains were running all over Britain.
Britain provided the pattern for future industrialization around the world, with its cities linked by steam transportation, its coal mines deep beneath the earth, and its mechanized cotton industry.
Britain's industrial productivity and technical progress were unique at the middle of the 19th century, but they did not last.
The Industrial Revolution spread to other countries in the second half of the 19th century.
The features that enabled Britain to pioneer the Industrial Revolution were present in many countries in these regions.
They also had resources of coal and iron.
Middle-class businessmen were eager to build factories and landless country-dwellers were eager to earn money.
Landowning nobles wanted to farm their land more efficiently and make more money from the coal and iron Ore beneath it.
The first steam-powered railroad engraving shows a combination of engineering advances.
The steam engine has become compact and powerful enough to move both itself and a whole wagon train, thanks to iron rails that guide the wagons with minimal friction, and by bridges and embankments that keep the track level.
The railroad's main revenue-earning traffic is sitting on piles of coal from local mines.
Mass transportation has arrived to keep fuel moving in Britain.
Other countries joined in the push for technical invention in the second half of the 19th century.
By the end of the century, Britain was no longer the most advanced or productive country in the world.
In Europe, that position was taken by Germany, while other countries such as France, Belgium, Italy, and Austria-Hungary were also important industrial producers.
The ancient empire of Japan, responding to the threat of U.S. and European control, was on the way to becoming a modern industrial country.
The United States was the most advanced and productive of all the industrial countries because of its vast natural resources, its fast-growing population, and its technical know-how.
Industrialization spread from country to country.
More and more traditional products were manufactured by the new methods, and more and more new products and manufacturing processes were invented.
Industrial firms sought to exploit the connection between pure and applied science.
Practical engineers and backyard tinkerers could still make significant discoveries, but more and more inventors were scientists.
Industrial companies and national governments began to invest large sums in research and development as invention became an organized activity.
The surge of technological progress has continued down to the present day because of the seemingly unlimited progress of pure science.
The new age of a permanent Industrial Revolution linked to science began in the middle of the 19th century.
Improved understanding of the chemistry of metallic ores enabled iron to be quickly and cheaply transformed into a stronger form of the metal, steel.
Steel replaced iron for rails, bridges, shipbuilding, and other types of construction where superior strength was required by the end of the century.
Inventions in the field of power production and distribution were the result of advances in the physics of heat, gas, electricity, and magnetism.
A new and powerful form of steam engine, the turbine, was coupled with generators that turned steam power into electrical energy so as to make electric light and power.
The internal combustion engine joined steam and electrical power at the end of the 19th century.
The new type of engine brought about more revolutions in transportation because it was fueled by previously undiscovered petroleum resources.
It made possible the development of both automobiles and aircraft.
Chemists were able to produce a variety of textiles and plastics from the vast amount of petroleum available.
The transmission and processing of information has been transformed by the creation of electronic devices by other twentieth century scientists.
The inventions of the last century and a half have amounted to a revolution.
Steel, oil, plastics, electronics, automobiles, and aircraft are just some of the industries that have sprung from nothing.
Each new industry develops its giant corporations, massive production plants, and its labor force of hundreds of thousands after twenty or thirty years after the initial invention.
The Industrial Revolution has not been painless.
It has led to huge changes in the way businesses are organized and run and in the patterns of the work and life of ordinary people.
It has given rise to radical ideologies that have promised relief from capitalism and industrialization but in practice have brought their own forms of mass suffering.
The balance of power in the world has been altered by it, giving dominance to the advanced and productive nations, subjecting nonindustrial ones to imperialistic control, and providing the weapons to fight wars more terrible than any in history.
The impact of the machine is the focus of much of this and the following chapters.
Entrepreneurs had to raise capital from other sources as their operations grew.
The pooling of money from hundreds of thousands of individuals was required for large undertakings.
Financial protection is a distinctive feature of a corporation or limited company.
The stock owners of joint-stock companies were responsible for the debts of the enterprise.
The corporation is a clever legal invention that was created by law.
It is allowed to hold property, borrow money, and be sued without the involvement of the stockholders.
The stockholders would lose the value of their stock if the assets of the corporate person were lost.
The idea of limited liability is important since it allows a business to invest money in its stock without the risk of losing other property.
They delegate direction of the firm's operations to a board of directors who are usually elected by stockholders.
The executive officers of the firm are chosen by the board.
The directors and executives usually produce profits for the stockholders.
The modern large corporation's development was a direct response to the massive use of machines.
It is worth examining how these enterprises function because they affect the lives of people everywhere.
Multinational corporations conduct operations around the globe.
It is owned by thousands of stockholders who want to receive regular dividends or gain from an increase in the value of their stock.
It employs thousands or hundreds of thousands of people, provides millions of dollars in commodities, and pays taxes to national, state, and local governments.
The corporation's assets may run into billions of dollars, and its gross income may exceed the revenue of many states and nations.
The economic empire is controlled by a small group of corporate managers.
Their decisions, made within the limits of law, finance, and consumer acceptance, determine the flow of investment, research, and development and influence the tastes and habits of the public.
They tried to eliminate competition in world markets through private agreements and extended their investments abroad to control the rate of economic growth.
Money and business sought the best rates of return and with an international elite of owners, managers, bankers, and promoter, industrial capitalism became a global force.
In shaping Europe and the world in the 19th and 20th centuries, the impact of liberalism and nationalism was a major factor.
The promise of extra ordinary profits drew risk capital to "backward" countries.
There was cheap labor, a high demand for capital, and rich resources waiting to be exploited.
The creation of an interdependent global economy was aided by overseas investments.
European capital built railways in Africa that brought out raw materials to be manufactured in Europe and sold in markets around the world.
The industrialists of Great Britain did well.
British private investments overseas amounted to $18 billion by 1914.
French capitalists had $7 billion.
The two nations' comparative penetration and influence in the "backward" continents are shown in the figures.
As early as 1900, some thoughtful observers began to ask if the expansion of economic power could go on without seriously disturbing political relations within and among nations.
The corporate leaders were aware that their wealth was guiding politics at home and abroad.
They believed that their political influence was essential to the development of the world's resources.
They believed that they could serve humanity best by being unrestricted in their pursuit of profit.
Mercantilism held that economic activities should be used to strengthen the state and that the state should guide industry and commerce.
Adam Smith was the most effective critic of mercantilism.
His ideas are based on Hobbes's view of society.
He argued that there is a "natural" economy geared to human selfishness.
Smith's writing reflected the general optimism of the Enlightenment, but later theorists presented a darker outlook as far as the working class was concerned.
David Ricardo was a financier who made his fortune in England during the Napoleonic Wars.
In a free market economy with a plentiful supply of labor, wages need to be close to the bare minimum for the workers.
More than that would allow more of the workers' children to survive, and this would increase the supply, which in turn would lower the "natural" price.
If wages fell so low that some workers died off, the supply of labor would decrease, which would raise wages back to the poverty level.
The teachings of "free market" economists gave a feeling of hopelessness to wage earners.
The captains of trade and industry were not upset by the economics.
It gave them compelling justifications for keeping wages down, for seeking profit when and where they could, and for working toward the elimination of government interference.
They were successful in striking down controls that they didn't like and in promoting government action that favored their interests.
The latter practice became more common as economic and political realities moved further away from the models of Adam Smith.
His doctrine remained as a kind of mythology to be called up or ignored according to the interests of particular industries.
Readers familiar with the third law of motion would have expected that bigness in business would lead to being an opposing force.
Big Business was being confronted by Big Labor and Big Government by the turn of the twentieth century.
Independent actions were more limited by huge, "autonomous" organizations.
In the long run, industrialization raised standards of living and lightened the burden of manual labor.
The traditional family unit was weakened by the transfer of production to factories from family farms and workshops.
Work became associated with class.
The early factories had dangerous and oppressive working conditions, hours were long, and wages were low.
The factory owners reinvested profits back into their machines.
The capital was drawn from the unhappy laborers who only had one choice: work or starve.
Even that choice was often denied them.
The system of capitalism in the 19th century was unstable.
Good times were followed by bad times.
Wage earners were the hardest hit when the factories laid off workers.
They were bound to suffer for as long as the system lasted.
The early factories' conditions gave rise to bitter discontent.
The domestic system of production had worse conditions.
The factory system made workers aware of their common plight and gave them a sense of what their united power might be.
The worker was at the mercy of a large employer.
An employer could run a factory without the help of a single wage-hand if there was a surplus of hungry workers.
Should they lose their jobs, wage-hands often had no place to turn.
Wages and hours were set by the employer, and the worker could either take them or leave them, in the early part of the 19th century.
Some promise of relief to the laborers was offered by collective action for the purpose of bargaining with employers.
The odds were against them whenever they tried to organize.
Local "trade clubs" existed in England before the Industrial Revolution, but only in a few skills, and only in certain communities.
The combinations of artisans were broken up by the joint action of employers and the government.
By 1800, trade unions were not allowed in France and England.
Employers feared that riots or uprisings might lead to higher costs, while governments worried that riots or uprisings might lead to higher costs.
Legislation in England in the 18th century allowed unions to exist but limited their activities.
By the middle of the 19th century, England had begun to organize some skilled workers on a nationwide basis.
The cotton spinners began to gain recognition for their associations and to develop modern collective bargaining procedures supported by the power of strikes.
Two million workers were organized into effective bargaining associations by 1900, despite the fact that many legal battles still had to be fought and won by British labor unions.
The United States and other industrial countries have a similar pattern of struggle.
Legislation was seen as a means of remedying industrialism by many workers.
In England, the laboring classes had no political power until after the mid-century, and other social groups succeeded in bringing about needed reforms through legislation.
The state's protective measures were essential to the health and safety of the nation.
The interests of the landed aristocracy were represented by reform legislation.
The best way to promote humane treatment of factory workers was for the land owners to have large investments in industry.
Intellectuals and humanitarians supported the proposals.
Some industrialists supported reforms after accumulating their fortunes.
Factory owners fought all proposed limitations on their freedom to conduct their businesses as they saw fit.
The worst conditions in British industry were removed by a series of parliamentary acts.
Employers were not allowed to hire children under nine years of age, and the labor of those under eighteen was restricted to nine hours a day.
Government inspectors were hired to make sure the regulations were observed.
Wage earners gained the right to vote in 1867.
France and Germany started to catch up to the En glish in industrial growth.
The French bourgeois supported Napoleon III in establishing the Second Empire.
There was nothing new about children working at exhausting, tedious, or dangerous tasks.
This practice was considered abusive and horrifying by the Industrial Revolution.
A picture of a boy hauling coal along a mine tunnel came from a report to the British Parliament.
Middle- and upper-class politicians passed labor legislation in Britain because of depictions of the working classes.
The emperor sympathized with the industrial working class and legalized labor unions in 1864.
As Germany became Europe's largest industrial producer, it took the lead in social legislation.
These reforms were brought about by labor unions, intellectuals, and religious groups.
In 1871, the German chancellor used social legislation to increase citizens' loyalty to the new German Empire.
The Industrial Code of 1891 guaranteed uniform protection to workers throughout the nation.
Sickness and accident insurance and old-age pensions for workers were important later laws.
The Social Insurance Code was a model for other industrialized countries.
The United States was at least a generation behind western Europe in adopting measures of this nature.
By 1890, mergers, trusts, and other forms of business combination were making huge profits, as giant industries developed rapidly after the Civil War.
Many liberals, labor leaders, populists, and small entrepreneurs became alarmed by the growing concentration of economic power.
In the name of liberalism, the power of the American government was called up as a counter force.
The passage of this law was only the beginning of a long and tough contest in which government has sought to protect the public against the excesses of private economic powers; it was looked upon by those powers, however, as an encroachment on their freedom.
The move from farm to town began in the Middle Ages as a response to the revival of commerce, but for centuries the flow was insignificant.
The Industrial Revolution, along with a sudden rise in population, gave peasants the freedom to move and change their occupations, which led to the rapid expansion of European cities.
The population figures before 1800 are only estimates, but they show that the num ber of people in Europe had risen very slowly.
The 19th century saw an increase.
The population of western Europe increased from 150 million to 450 million from 1800 to 1914.
After 1870, the big wave began to roll.
Many factors led to a lowering of the death rate.
Increased food production, planting of more healthy crops, advances in Sanitation, and control of epidemics were some of the things that were increased.
The Industrial Revolution gave more purchasing power to the manufacturing countries, and that power was used to import more food from overseas.
Germany had the largest population of any western European nation by 1910.
Britain had 42 million, followed by France with 41 million, and Italy with 36 million.
The growth was most striking in the cities.
At the start of the Industrial Revolution there were only four English cities with over fifty thousand inhabitants; by 1850, thirty-one of that size, and half the population of Britain was living in cities.
The largest and best known of the new industrial communities was Manchester.
By 1850, it had grown to half a million people.
The way of life of the Western peoples changed as a result of the growth of cities in the 19th century.
The average person had lived on the land as either a smallholding peasant or an agricultural worker.
In most European countries, 80 to 90 percent of the population was occupied in agriculture and only 10 to 20 percent earned a living from industry or commerce.
The proportion was reversed by the late twentieth century.
Less than 10 percent of the population in western Europe and the United States works in agriculture, and the rest of the world is moving in the same direction.
Europe had under 50 people per square mile, except for a narrow belt between northern Italy and the Netherlands.
A single lifetime later, most of Europe had over 50 people per square mile, and the area of heaviest population stretched from Sicily to Scotland.
The population grew in southern Italy and eastern Europe, as well as industrial Britain and Belgium, and the increase in rural Europe fed North American and European cities.
The "backwash" from industrialization and the swift overflow of people from towns and farms overturned deep-set patterns of family and community life that dated back to the Middle Ages.
The factory brought an end to the traditional way of life for the Western people, who were used to being surrounded and dominated by nature in a world that was more of their own making.
The environment was ugly.
The cities did not have paved streets.
The housing for workers was poor.
Refugee from rural poverty poured into the crowded, soot-blackened tenements.
The chronic urban maladies of disease and crime have persisted ever since.