With their conquests in India, Babur and his successors acquired more non Muslim subjects.
The number of Indians who converted to Islam increased over time, but the Mughal rulers did not force it.
Akbar was the first to promote Muslim Hindu accommodation.
He wore uncut hair in a tur ban as a concession to Indian practice.
One of Akbar's Hindu princesses became the mother of his heir, Jahangir.
Hindus made up 30 percent of the imperial bureaucracy.
There was a serious conflict between the emperor and the Ulama after these ac tions.
Akbar issued an impe rial decree stating that the Mughal emperor had supreme authority over all reli gious matters.
The benign toleration was founded in 1569 by Akbar, who was against the Muslim holy man Muslim religious establishment.
Some of Akbar's successors, above all Aurangzeb, Jahangir, were foretold by Shaykh Salim Chishti.
Akbar is seated on a cushion in the center of the city.
Akbar commissioned a book of illustrations to chronicle his reign.
All taxes not authorized by Islamic law were abolished.
Aurangzeb reimposed the tax on non-Muslims to replace lost revenue.
The long-term shift in trading patterns that resulted from the discoveries of European explorers is thought to have caused a decline in the wealth and international importance of the Muslim empires.
The British East India Company took over power from the Mughals in the 18th century.
These ideas have been challenged by scholars.
Turkish, Persian, and Indian merchants opened up many new routes as long-distance traders.
There were many signs of political decline in the three Islamic empires before the eigh teenth century.
Government revenue came from taxes on farmers.
The spread of new crops, such as coffee and sugar, helped agriculture, but New World crops, such as potatoes and sweet potatoes, did not play a major role in the economy.
The importance of trade to the economies of the three Islamic empires should not be discounted.
European penetration increased over the centuries covered in this chapter.
Portuguese trade was the first term used.
In 1510 the British established the port of Goa on the west coast of India as their trading post and later took control of Muslim shipping in at Surat that was later applied to all European settlements in India.
The spice trade over the Indian Ocean was controlled by them for almost a century.
The goal of the Dutch East India Company was to wrest the spice trade from the Portuguese.
They overtook the Portuguese in Sri Lanka in 1685.
The English were attracted by the scent of profits.
The British East India Company was formed with a charter signed by Queen Elizabeth.
In 1619 Emperor Jahangir granted a British mission important commercial concessions.
The British East India Company was able to set up forts after offering gifts, medical services, and bribes to Indian rulers.
The company founded Madras and Calcutta in the 17th century and took over Bombay in the 18th.
Goods were stored in warehouses before being shipped to Europe.
The company president was in charge of all residents.
Growing European demand for Indian and Chinese wares made factory-forts profitable.
Indian textiles were desired by the European middle classes.
Early British traders in India were impressed with the quality of the textiles made there and began ordering designs that would be popular with the English.
The printed cotton used in this dress is from the southeastern part of India.
Chintz was banned in England because it was threatening textile industries.
The British East India Company sold silver, copper, zinc, lead, and fabrics to the Indians.
The company began to trade with China after 1700.
The Ottomans and the Safavids did not benefit from the shifting trade patterns associated with European colonial expansion.
Merchants from the Islamic empires found ways to benefit from the new trade networks.
In India, the appearance of European traders led to a rapid increase in trade, helping Indian merchants and the Indian economy.
India's chief export was block-printed cotton cloth.
The cloth brokers specified the quality, quantity, and design of the finished products, and the bankers supplied the ma terial for production and money for the artisans to live on while they worked.
The English took the idea from the Indians, and this procedure resembles the later English "domestic" or "putting-out" system.