Federal government employees were allowed to join unions in 1962.
In 1959 Wisconsin became the fi nd state to allow public employees to bargain collectively.
Wisconsin enacted a workers' compensation law in the early 20th century that provides cash and medical care to workers injured on the job.
Unemployment compen sation is a program that provides funds for a limited time to unemployed workers.
After the 2010 election, Wisconsin became a battleground for efforts to roll back public employee bargaining rights.
Scott Walker was elected governor in 2010 and the Republicans took control of both houses of the legislature.
Walker and the state legislature set about to fulfill some of his campaign promises after he took office.
During the economic downturn, Walker wanted public employees to pay more towards their pension and health care.
He wanted to limit public employee union rights as a way to reduce salaries negotiated through collective bargaining agreements in which all employee salaries went up together.
There are protesters in the capitol rotunda on February 25, 2011.
They have occupied the building for the past 11 days to protest the governor's attempt to restrict collective bargaining for most government workers.
David B. Magleby talks about what characteristics determine an interest group's political leverage.
These and other questions can be asked by real people.
There are interest groups in American politics.
Kay Schlozman is a political scientist at Boston College.
She talks about how scholars determine which groups are represented and which are not.
The video shows how different theories of interest groups are from real people's reactions to the debate over whether school cafeterias should count pizza sauce as a full serving of vegetables.
David B. Magleby considers the possibility of a new constitutional amendment to counteract the recent events that deregulated these groups.
The process in which a union repres deny the Republicans the necessary number of senators to act on the sents of employees in negotia changes.
Governor Walker and the Republican legislative majority made changes to the wages of their employees.
The unions successfully recalled benefits after filing lawsuits against the new law.
There is a procedure for submitting to popu.
National figures like former president office before the end of their term after a heated election.
Walker won with 53 percent of the vote despite being endorsed by Bill Clinton and other Republicans.
Walker and the Republicans thought his victory was related to interest groups.
There are other states that are trying to abolish public employee unions' right to collective bargaining.
John Kasich said after the election that it was clear that the people had spoken.
Listening and hearing what people have to say is part of leading.
The interplay between interest groups and the government can be seen in the political battles over public unions.
During the 2012 election, a lot of attention was given to efforts by the federal government to assist the auto industry in 2008 and 2009.
Banks, auto companies, and public employee unions are all examples of interest groups.
They use a variety of strategies, from local citizens spontaneously organizing for some political purpose to more organized, election focused political action committees.
Interest groups like these have been important in setting the agenda of American politics for a long time.
U.S. citizens have been concerned about the power of special interests and the groups' focus on their self-interest at the expense of less well-organized groups or the general public.
It is not easy to restrain the negative tendencies of interest groups.
The full range of interest group activities as well as efforts to limit their potentially negative influences are examined in this chapter.
The framers of the Constitution had a difficult problem of how to establish a stable and orderly constitutional system that would respect the liberty of free citizens and prevent the tyranny of the majority.
The asserted power can be checked by all individuals groups.
Acknowledging by everyone.
A large group of people interested in Separation of powers and checks and balances make it hard for a group of people to dominate a common issue.
The terms offi ce make it necessary for a group to survive.
They are willing to take action.
Checks and balances are arguably the best tions.
There is debate on how well pluralism has worked.
Over time, government has sought to regulate groups such as corporations, unions, and wealthy individuals because of their power in American government.
The debate about how to check their power without damaging their liberty is an enduring one.
Some U.S. citizens identify with groups based on race, gender, ethnic background, age, occupation, religion, or sexual orientation.
Some people form voluntary groups based on their opinions about issues such as gun control.
This term is often used in a negative way by politicians and the media.
The answer is very subjective.
Common Cause and the League of Women Voters support policies that some people don't agree with.
Politics is seen as a clash of interests, rather than a battle between the special interests on one side and the people on the other.
"Special interest" is a narrow view that may lack credibility.
An interest group does not speak for all of us.
There are many interest groups in a democracy.
The democratic process can be used to decide among them.
Interest groups try to convince the public that their interests are more important than those of other groups.
Interest groups can start as social movements.
Civil rights, environmental, anti- tax, animal rights, women's rights, Christian Right, gay rights, anti- immigration, and antiwar movements are examples.
The Mubarak government was brought down by the mass protests of the Arab Spring in 2011.
The movement was not focused on what to do after Mubarak was deposed.
Six people were killed and more than 800 were injured when the protests were violent.
The Tea Party began in early 2009, not long after Barack Obama took office, and groups started forming to protest the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.
Tea Party is a reference to the Boston Tea Party of 1773, when colonists rebelled against British taxes on tea.
Growing government power is one of the group's concerns.
The Tea Party has become a part of the Republican Party.
The Bill of Rights protects movements that are popular or unpopular.
Those who disagree with government policies don't have to engage in violence or other extreme activities in the United States, as they do in some countries, and they don't need to fear prosecution for peacefully demonstrating.
Some organize to get the public's attention to issues of concern to the group, such as reducing greenhouse gases, while others conduct research and send mass mailings.
These categories are not exclusive.
Next, we look at each interest group.
Both economic interests and politically, they pursue what benefi ts them.
The largest business institution is the corporation.
Corporations range from small to large.
Many large companies and hundreds of smaller companies have political influence.
As Microsoft and Wal-Mart came under scrutiny, their political contributions expanded.
Business practices are important political issues because of corporate power.
Small businesses have an important voice in public policy because of the cooperation between groups.
The Small Business Administration is included in the Commerce Department.
The National Federation of Independent Business helps pro-business candidates and persuade the national government on behalf of its members.
The National Association of Realtors and the American Wind Energy Association are both large associations that organize businesses of all types.
The Chamber of Commerce of the United States is the broadest business association.
The Chamber is a federation of thousands of local Chambers of Commerce.
The National Association of Manufacturers has tended to speak for the more conservative elements of American business since 1893.
Professional standards, wages and working conditions are some of the interests of workers' associations.
The American workforce is among the least unionized of any industrial democracy, yet labor unions are one of the most important groups representing workers.
Service employees and public employees have seen growth in recent years.
P ublic sector unions have become the focus of controversy in recent years.
Policy consequences are caused by the level of unionization.
Minimum wage rates increase with unionization.
The data was obtained from the Online OECD Employment database.
Local unions and politi cal parties were organized by American workers in the 19th century.
The Knights of Labor had over one million members in the 1890s.
The American Federation of Labor (AFL), a confederation of strong and independent-minded national unions mainly representing craft workers, was the dominant organization by 1900.
The Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) was formed in the 1930s after unions more responsive to industrial workers broke away from the AFL.
The CIO and the AFL were together in 1955.
The Service Employees International Union and two other unions split from the AFL-CIO in 2005, forming a new group called the Change to.
By 2007, dues paid to the union exceeded levels before the division.
The proportion of the U.S. workforce belonging to all unions has fallen, in part, because of the shift from unionized labor.
Membership limits organized labor.
The number of union members fell in Wisconsin after the change in public sector collective bargaining.
Some service sector unions have begun to expand, and even some doctors have unionized.
The number of SEIU members rose from 1.58 million in 2006 to 2.1 million in 2012
60 are related to that profession.
Many workers in open-shop states choose not to join a union because they can get the same benefits as unionized workers without having to pay dues.
In political campaigns since 1998, unions have emphasized direct con tact with members and their families through mail, e-mail, on the phone and in person.
They pay for television advertising and organize get-out-the-vote drives.
When unions were important to securing Al Gore's nomination in 2000, they were divided in the 2004 and 2008 Democratic presidential primaries.
SEIU and the Change to Win Federation supported Barack Obama, while the United Steel Workers and the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees supported Hillary Clinton.
The unions were united in their support of Obama.
The results of state level elections for unions were mixed.
In Ohio, a ballot measure passed reversing legislation that would have limited public employee collective bargaining, but the 2012 Wisconsin recall election was seen as a defeat for public sector unions.
The unions have not enjoyed a close relationship with the Republicans.
Given labor's limited resources, one option for unions is to form temporary coalitions with consumer, public interest, liberal, and sometimes even industry groups, especially on issues related to foreign imports.
The North American Free Trade Agreement is one of the free trade agreements that labor has been unsuccessful in blocking.
Barack Obama met with labor union members while campaigning for the presidency in 2008.
The National Education Association, the American Federation of Teachers, and the American Association of University Professors are some of the groups that teachers and professors belong to.
Many professions are regulated by the government.
The standards of admission to the state bar for lawyers are set by the states as a result of pressure from lawyers themselves.
The courts are used by professional associations to pursue their agendas.
Doctors lobby hard for limited-liability laws while trial lawyers resist them in the area of medical malpractice.
Marriage therapists, teachers, and hairstylists are all licensed by the state in which they work.
The National Association of Home Builders is one of the largest donors to political campaigns.
Ideological groups focus on a single issue.
Members share a common view and desire for the government to follow it.
Right-to-life, pro-choice, and anti-immigration groups all have this description.
Civil liberties, environmental protection, nuclear energy, and nuclear disarmament are some of the specifi c issues that have been organized by many groups.
These associations are not new.
The Anti-Saloon League did not care if legislators were drunk or sober as long as they voted dry.
The National Rifle Association has almost 4 million members who are committed to protecting the right to bear arms.
The Club for Growth is a libertarian and anti-tax group.
Common Cause campaigns for electoral reform to make it outside government that advocates and pursues policy objectives.
Washington staff raises money through direct-mail campaigns, oversees state chapters of the group, publishes research reports and press releases on current issues, and lobbies Congress and government departments.
Interest groups fight foreign policies.
The Council on Foreign Relations is located in New York City.
Other groups want Congress and the president to act.
Interest groups are trying to change American policy on China's refusal to grant independence for Tibet.
Some groups are against free trade.
Foreign policy groups should not be confused with foreign governments and interest groups that are banned from making campaign contributions in other nations.
The American Israel Political Action Committee has more than 100,000 members.
Because it's not required to reveal where its money comes from, it focuses on government directly.
The enactment of aid packages to Israel, passage of the 1985 United States-Israel Free Trade Agreement, and emergency assistance to Israel in the wake of the 1992 Gulf War are some of the successes of the American Israel Public Affairs Committee.
The Arab American Institute supports Arab causes.
The U.S. interest groups on both sides are important because of the negotiations between the Palestinians and Israel.
Governments are important interest groups.
Washington lobbyists are retained by many cities and states to advocate on behalf of the city or state before Congress and the executive branch of the federal government.
The National Governors Association, cities, and counties are part of the National Association of Counties.
lieutenant governors, secretaries of state, mayors have their own associations.
A large group of government employees.
The National Education Association has over three million members.
The debate over global warming has been about the accuracy of the scientific claims about changes in the Earth's climate.
The opinion of the public on whether global warming is a serious problem was part of the survey.
Fewer Americans think global warming is a serious problem than the United States.
In our sample of countries outside the United States, between 72 and 94 percent of people saw global warming as a very serious or somewhat serious problem.
The United States had a 70 percent proportion.
The United States is lower than all other countries when it comes to the view that global warming is a very serious problem.
Roughly three-fifths to two-thirds of people in Mexico, Japan, and India think global warming is a very serious problem.
41 percent of people in China think global warming is a serious problem.
The Natural Resources Defense Council, www.nrdc.org; Sierra Club, www.sierraclub.org; and Wilderness Society, www.wilderness.org all have websites.
There are more than two million members of the Greenpeace worldwide.
Barack Obama was endorsed by the NEA in 2008.
There is a professional association, labor union, and public sector interest group.
Public employees constitute the fastest growing unions.
Veterans' groups, nationality groups, and religious organizations are some of the groups that American adults are often emotionally engaged in.
People join groups because of a common interest, or because of an issue or concern.
Wars give opportunities for military veterans to meet other veterans, and the groups provide an important advocacy function for veterans as they deal with Congress or the Veterans' Administration bureaucracy.
Women's organizations have long advocated for the right to vote.
The League of Women Voters was formed in 1920 and has chapters in all 50 states.
NARAL Pro-Choice America is an interest group with a focus on reproductive rights.
The National Organization of Women is more focused.
Environmental groups are becoming more active.
The Sierra Club is one of the best known groups.
The Sierra Club was founded in 1892.
The Sierra Club has a lobbying presence in Washington, D.C., and it is active in environmental protection.
The Wilderness Society and the Defenders of Wildlife have paid staff who are committed to protecting wilderness.
For example, unions that achieve wage concessions from man to pursue their goals or objectives do so for all workers in and out of the union.
The results include how to get individuals and groups to cooperate.
Group leaders try to reduce free science when it is not possible.
Groups have different goals, methods, and power.
Size, incentives to participate, resources, cohesiveness, leadership, and specifically studies how government techniques are among their most important characteristics.
We will show how these resources and objectives help us understand the power of interest groups.
An organization with 5 million voters has more power than one with 5,000.
The number of members who are willing and active for policy objectives is more important.
Incentives to join interest groups include exclusive magazines, travel benefi ts, professional meetings and job opportunities, and discounts on insurance, merchandise, and admission to cultural institutions.
Clean air, national defense, and street lights are some of the services provided by the government.
Paying for these benefi ts through taxes is a solution to the free rider problem.
Nongovernment service providers can require a number of people to pay for their services.
It's in everyone's interest to pay for the service, otherwise no one will.
During the recession of 2010 and 2011, scores of cities and towns canceled their local July 4th celebrations because private and public sources were no longer able to provide the funding.
Unless we off er some compensation for providing easily shared goods and services, they are not likely to be produced.
The extent to which the membership is dispersed.
The American Medical Association has an active chapter in virtually every congressional district, but the auto industry's is concentrated in Michigan and a few other states.
Concentration of membership in a key battleground state, such as Cuban Americans in Florida, enhances that group's effectiveness.
The U.S. Chamber of Commerce is active at the local, state, and national levels.
The American Association of Retired Persons promotes its membership in policy debates.
Citrus growers have a spread that only includes a few states.
There are three types of members in mass-membership organizations: a relatively small number of formal leaders who hold full-time, paid positions or devote much time to the group's activities, and a few hundred people who identify with the group.
The group is more cohesive when they share common views on the organization's aims.
A good example of a cohesive group with strong organizational structures is the organization of the group, such as the organization of the organization of the group of the group of the group of the group of the group of the group of the group of the group of the group of the group of the group In 2012 when a sponsor reversed itself and resumed funding the organization, the reaction was swift and strong.
In a group that embraces many attitudes and interests, leaders can either unify the elements or bring them apart.
The leader of a national business association has to be careful between big business and small business, between exporters and importers, between chain stores and corner grocery stores, and between the producers and the sellers of competing products.
The leader of a group must know when to lead and when to stay out of the way.
The president of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce is an example of an eff ective group leader.
The Chamber has grown under Donohue's leadership.
There are activities aimed at influencing opposing sides.
Our separation-of-powers system gives many access points for any group attempt.
Interest groups use the media to influence voters during elections and to encourage them to contact their representatives after the election.
Large-scale advertisers know how to deliver their message effectively and can find an advertising agency to do it for them.
In communicating with its members, organized labor uses mail, phone calls, and shop stewards.
Mobilization can be done through the Internet and social media.
The Business and Industrial Political Action Committee uses the internet to communicate with their members and employees.
Absentee ballots and roll call votes of legislators on issues of interest to their businesses can be requested on the website of the Bipartisan Policy Center.
Some groups, such as MoveOn.org, operate almost exclusively online.
The Internet helps interest groups in two ways.
It allows citizens to organize themselves for rallies, marches, letter-writing drives, and other kinds of civic participation.
Second, the Internet opens new forms of political action, such as sending mass e-mails, posting videos, joining Facebook groups, donating money online, and commenting on articles.
In the media chapter, we discuss these developments in more detail.
One way to increase the reach and eff ectiveness of interest groups is to use computerized and targeted mass mailing.
Today's communication technology can target personalized letters and e-mails to specifi c groups and individuals.
The foundation for the e-mail list for the 2012 reelection campaign was provided by the 13 million e-mail addresses the Obama campaign had after the 2008 campaign.
Energy should be considered when voting by well-staffed associations and corporations.
Lobbyists prepare written responses to the proposed rules, draft alternative rules, and make their case at the hearings in a "friend of the court" brief.
When political channels are closed to groups, they can present arguments in addition to those presented to the courts.
The political process is unimportant.
The FEC requires individuals and groups opposed to contributions and expenditures to challenge federal, state, and local laws in this area.
Protest demonstrations are used to generate interest and support for their cause.
Pro- immigrant groups staged protests in cities such as Phoenix and Washington, D.C., with more than 1 million people, after the House of Representatives passed new laws on illegal immigration.
Protesters gathered in Los Angeles and Chicago to highlight the importance of immigrants in the economy.
Individuals have come together to protest the disparity of income and power between the rich and poor.
In Oakland, California, where protests turned to violence, other "occupy" groups emerged.
The 2012 election focused more on income and wealth distribution than had the elections of 2008 or 2010.
Civil rights movement, antiwar, environmental, and anti-globalization groups are some of the groups that have used protest.
Political action committees are legal ways for interest groups to give money to candidates, political party committees, and other political committees.
The Committee on Political Education (COPE) of the AFL-CIO is one of the oldest political action committees.
Other PACs are encouraged to contribute to favored candidates and host fund-raisers for them.
There are no limits on the amount of money individuals, corporations, or unions can contribute to a Super PAC.
Several congressional election campaigns and the Republican presi dential nomination contest were aided by the groups.
Each is limited to $2,000 and can be done via the computer.
"Winning Our Future" is a Super PAC supporting Newt Gingrich.
Harold Simmons gave nearly $27 million.
scorecards of key legislative votes are created by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and the League of Conservation Voters.
A political party is formed not so much to win elections but to promote a cause.
When a major party co-opts the interest group's issue, success may occur.
The Free Soil Party was formed in the mid-1840s to fight the spread of slavery in the territories, and the Prohibition Party was formed two decades later to ban the sale of liquor.
Farmers have formed parties.
Interest groups prefer to work with existing parties.
The Tea Party is closely associated with the Republican Party.