ChAPTER 17 -- Part 8: Reunification and Renaissance in
The Tang and Song eras had a lot of artistic and literary creativity thanks to the scholar-gentry elite.
The court, prosperous merchants, and wealthy monasteries used Buddhist art and architecture.
The Tang is best remembered for the literature written by Confucian and scholar-administrators.
The landscapes that were painted were some of the most beautiful in the Song era.
People who were educated were expected to practice painting and writing.
The Chinese educational establishment wanted to turn out generalists rather than specialists.
A well-educated man is successful in many fields.
After a hard day at the Ministry of Public Works, a truly accomplished official was expected to spend the evening making music on his lute, admiring a new painting, or sipping rice wine while writing a poem to the harvest moon.
The Tang and Song eras were renowned for their poetry, music, and landscape painting.
As the Confucian scholar-gentry replaced the Buddhists as the major producers of art and literature, devotional objects and religious homilies gave way to a growing fixation on everyday life.
The lives of the common people were the focus of a lot of the short story literature.
His poems were similar to those of the great Persian authors in that they blend images of the everyday world with musings on philosophy.
The land was green after the rain.
There was one last cloudlet in the sky.
There are blossoms on the branches.
Time will end as flowers are fading.
The sighs of all mortal men are deep.
I will learn how to fly from magic and from the sacred hills.
The political elite produced more than the religious sculptures or mosaics of other civilizations.
The sculptures and mosaics were created to show a religious history of civilization.
The sculptures that adorned the temples of message were created to remind the viewers of a key event in the life of Christ India and the statues, paintings, and stained glass that graced the Buddha, or to impress upon them the horrors of hell or the cathedrals of medieval Europe.
The Song artists bridged the gulf between the elites and the people who painted in their leisure time.
Confucian scholars and often administrators, imported Buddhists who won enough patronage to devote themselves to painting full art forms performed this function in some periods in Chinese time.
It is not just the amateur and "master of all fields" ideals that are tivity, best exemplified by landscape painting, but the fact that so much art was produced by differences that separated the educated scholar.
The use of empty space, simplicity of composition, and emphasis on nature are all characteristics of Chinese landscape painting in the Song era.
The colors were usually brown or black.
Most artists stamped their work with signature seals, like the red ones in this image, and poems describing scenes related to those in the painting floated in the empty space at the top or sides.
The Chinese language was considered to be a high art form and the Special Chinese and Japanese Fund was created to honor those who wrote it.
The paintings were symbolic and intended to teach moral lessons.
A crane, a pine tree, bamboo shoots, and a dragon were some of the objects depicted that were larger than themselves.
The paintings have a special appeal in the present day because of their abstract quality.
The artists wanted to create a personal vision of natural beauty rather than depicting nature accurately.
There was a premium placed on suggestion.
The winner of an imperial contest painted a lone monk drawing water from an icy stream to depict a monastery hidden deep in the mountains during the winter.
As the viewer unfolded the scrolls, they could read the paintings on them.
Most were accompanied by a poem, sometimes composed by the painter, which complemented the subject matter and was aimed at explaining the artist's ideas.
Paper, printing, and gunpowder were important parts of Chinese civilization during the postclassical period.
The course of development in China was fundamentally changed by fewer fundamental changes than those experienced in eastern and Western Europe.
Chinese civilization had political power and economic resources that were important new ways until the 18th century.
Some of the innovations are unique to any other civilization.
The Song rulers were able to survive the assaults of the nomads from the north because they retreated to the south.
As the dynasty weak exchanges with central Asia, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and elsewhere in ened, enduring patterns of nomadic incursions resurfaced and built southeast Asia.
China contributed vital to other regions as it flours, even though it is more isolated than the Islamic empire and the top of pastoral military and political expansion under India.
Under two vigorous dynasties, the Tang and the Song, the Song emperors could not retreat far enough.
The Song rulers paid tribute to the Mongol Khan and made alliances in order to buy volume of overseas trade, productivity per land area, and the sophis time.
A later leader of luxury goods, from silks to fine ceramics, attracted traders from Kubilai Khan and launched a sustained effort to conquer the southern abroad and delighted upper-class consumers in distant lands.
The refuge was completed by 1279.
The general histories of China were suggested in Chapter 4.
The Tang and Song eras are covered in several important works.
What were the major ways in which the Chinese and 3 had relations?