He was torn between his duty to his family and his duty to his community.
It was a multiform, wonderful vision, with many mouths and eyes, and all of it was anointed with divine perfume.
It would be like the light of a thousand suns rising in the sky at once.
This is one of the most compelling attempts to depict the nature of deity.
In the end, we learn that Krishna is the organizing principle behind all creation and that behind diversity and multiplicity lies a higher unity.
This is a good example of Indian civilization.
The patchwork of ethnic and linguistic groups in 1From Bhagavad-Gita is mirrored by the enormous variety of the Indian landscape.
Permission was granted by a division of Random House, Inc.
One can say of an Indian civilization that it is united by shared views and values.
There is a temple in the city of Madurai in southern India.
The Chittarai Festival celebrates the wedding of a local goddess, Minakshi, and the great Hindu god Shiva, symbolizing the reconciliation of local and national deities, southern and northern cultural practices, and male and female potentialities.
From approximately 1500 b.c.e., this chapter surveys the history of South and Southeast Asia.
Due to religion's profound role in shaping Indian society and the sources of information available to historians, Indian religious conceptions are given a lot of attention.
Writing came late to India and ancient Indians did not develop a historical consciousness like other peoples of antiquity and took little interest in recording specific historical events.
The modern nations of Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India, and the adjacent island of Sri Lanka are grouped into three distinct topographical zones.
The northern zone contains forested foothills and high meadow on the edge of the Hindu Kush and Himalaya ranges.
These rivers have overflowed their banks and deposited silt on top of each other in the Indian Ocean.
There is a tropical coastal strip between the fast-growing state of Malabar in the west and the Coromandel Coast in the east, with a web of rivers descending heating and cooling land from the central plateau, the flatlands of Tamil Nadu on the southern tip of the peninsula, and
The northern rim of mountains protects the subcontinent from the cold winds of the north.
The temperature difference between land and water creates a great wind.
The southwest monsoon begins in June, absorbing huge India, Southeast Asia, and amounts of moisture from the Indian Ocean and dropping it over a swath of India that can be seen in the rain forest belt on the western coast and the Ganges Basin.
There are three harvests a year.
Rice is grown in the Ganges Delta.
Beginning of migrations from mainland Southeast Asia to islands in the Pacific and Indian Ocean 1500 B.C.E.
Mahavira found Jainism and Siddhartha found Buddhism.
The foundation of the Mauryan Empire was laid when Chandragupta Maurya became king of Magadha.
Funan dominates the south.
Gupta Empire and the Isthmus of Kra 500 C.E.
were established by Chandra Gupta.
The trade route goes through the Strait of 550 c.e.
The staple foods in Srivijaya are wheat, barley, and millet.
Agriculture requires extensive irrigation and the Indus Valley gets little precipitation.
The ocean has not been a barrier to travel and trade.
The return voyage of the Indian sacred winds across open waters in January and to make the return voyage "knowledge" in July.
Ships sailed west across the Arabian Sea to the Persian Gulf, the southern coast of Arabia, and east across the Bay of Bengal to Indonesia.
The religious writing from that period has not been deciphered.
Around 1900 b.c.e., that society succumbed to advanced social texts and technology.
The period from 1500 to 500 b.c.e.
is called by historians.
The beginnings of Indian civilization were in the Vedic Age.
There wasn't a central authority to direct irrigation efforts after the collapse of the civilization.
Kinship groups in the region depended on their herds of cattle for sustenance.
The father dominated the family as the king ruled the tribe.
The members of the warrior class boasted of their martial skill and courage, celebrated combat with lavish feasts of beef and rounds of heavy drinking, and spent their leisure time with chariot racing and gambling.
This advance was made possible by new technologies.
The settlers were allowed to fell trees and work the land with plows if they had iron tools.
The soil of the Ganges Plain was fertile and able to grow two or three crops a year.
In Greece, the use of iron tools to open new land for agriculture must have led to an increase in population.
Bitter warfare between two groups of people, the Dasas and the Aryas, is said to have taken place in this era.
It is possible that the elites from both groups merged.
Most of the time, the Dasas were pushed into central and southern India, where their descendants still live.
Dravidian speech is more prevalent in the south than in the north.
Indian society is concerned with skin color and is one of the bases for its internal divisions.
The Untouchables were marked off.
They were excluded from the class social divisions because of the Brahmin system, and members of the other groups avoided them because of the degrading work done by the priest class.
Purusha, a primordial creature, allowed itself to be sacrificed as a result of the Accord farmer class and the Shudra ing to one creation myth.
The Brahmin priests were the embodiment of intellect and knowledge.
The varna system is one of the mechanisms used to regulate relations between occupational sphere and different groups.
Each jati had its own duties and responsibilities.
Their interactions with other groups were governed byElaborate rules.
The belief in reincarnation was connected to the class and caste systems.
The atman was separated from the body at death.
The elite would use people who lived exemplary lives to be reborn into the higher classes.
The punishment for being a bad person would be to be demoted to a lower class or even a lower life form by ancient India.
The only way to improve your lot in the next cycle of existence is to position and do your duty, and that's what the underlying message was.
The deities in the religion were male and associated with the heavens.
Indra, god of war and master of the thunderbolt, daily slew the demon to release the dawn.
Universal order and justice were maintained by the lord of the sky.
The sacrifice and the spheres of gods and humans were bridged by the force of fire.
The rest of Asia is separated by mountains and the ocean.
The Khyber Pass is where invasions and migrations usually come from.
Western Asia, Southeast Asia, and East Asia had prosperous seaborne commerce.
The people who spoke the languages of Europe migrated into the north.
The south's dominant population was made up of Dravidian-speaking peoples.
Many small states that have characterized Indian political history are due to the diversity of the Indian landscape, the multiplicity of ethnic groups, and the primary identification of people with their class and caste.
The dedication to a god of a valued possession was the essential ritual.
The purpose of these offerings was to help the gods and promote stability in the world.
Brahmin priests were the only ones who knew the rituals and prayers.
The information was handed down from one generation to the next.
They were rewarded for their service at sacrifice and their knowledge gave them social and political power.
The Brahmins may have resisted the introduction of writing in order to retain their control of sacred knowledge.
Writing came into widespread use in India later than in other societies.
We may not be aware of earlier uses of writing because of the fact that some of the materials that were used have not been found in the archaeological record.
It is difficult to understand the experiences of women in India.
Indra pated in the ritual.
They did not marry until they reached Vritra, the firstborn of drag ing their middle or late teens.
Several women appear in the Indian epic ons, and how Purusha created poems from this era.
Important social ritual sacrifice was served by the sharp internal divisions and complex hierarchy of Indian society.
Some groups were able to upgrade their status.
The elaborate system of divisions provided a way to work out social tensions.
Many of these features have been around for a long time.
The Hindu concept who objected to the rigid hierarchy of classes and castes or the community's demands on the spirit's "liberation" individual could retreat to the nearby forest that still covered much of ancient India.
Freedom from societal constraints was symbolized by these wild from the endless cycle of places.
There are certain charismatic individuals who abandon their town or village and move to the avenue of their choice.
There are more than one hundred mystical dialogues between teachers and disciples.
Two new religions emerged around this time: Jainism and Buddhism.
Mahavira and his followers practiced strict nonviolence to emphasize the holiness of the life force.
They wore masks and brushed off a seat before sitting down.
Stupas are mounds containing relics of the Buddha.
The complex at Sanchi, in central India, was begun by Ashoka in the third century b.c.e., though the gates probably date to the first century c.e.
The remains of the Buddha are being brought to the city of Kushinagara.
The depiction of the Buddha is from the northwest and shows the effects of a fast before he abandoned asceticism.
Alexander the Great established Greek settlements in that region in the late fourth century b.c.e.
which influenced Greek artistic styles.
The injunction against killing restricted Jainists from agricultural work, but they were still engaged in commerce and banking.
The rise of Buddhism was more significant for Indian and world history.
There were many stories about Siddhartha Gautama.
He came from a family in the foothills of the Himalayas.
As a young man, he enjoyed the lifestyle that he had been born into, but at some point he abandoned his family and became a wandering ascetic.
He decided to follow a "Middle Path" of moderation after six years of self-deprivation because he thought asceticism was not likely to produce spiritual insight than his previous life.
Some of the followers took vows of celibacy, nonviolence, and poverty.
Not quite rejecting the social position.
The existence of gods denied a person enlightenment.
The cycle of reincarnations of Buddhism came to an end with the release of nirvana.
The survival of the atman, the nonmaterial essence of the individual, was emphasized by the Vedic tradition.
Bud out India and to Southeast, dhism regarded the individual as a whole, without any soul-like component that survived East, and Central Asia.
The Buddha's message spread throughout India and into Central, Southeast, and East Asia, subverting the individualism of the founder.
A hierarchy of Buddhist monks and nuns came into being as a result of the establishment of Buddhist monasteries.
People began to worship the Buddha as a god.
The makers of early images refused to show the Buddha as a living person and instead resented him through symbols such as his footprints, his begging bowl, or the escape, as if to emphasize his enlightenment.
Alexander the Great Vehicle's branch of Bud was the great of the Greek settlements established in Bactria.
There was a split within Buddhism.
Vedic religion was challenged by new movements and made enlightenment.
Hinduism incorporated elements from the Dravidian cultures of the Elders' branch of Bud the south, such as an emphasis on intense devotion to the deity and the prominence of fertility dhism.
There are elements of Buddhism present.
Theravada is close to the process by which the original principles of Hinduism were created.
The Brahmin priests maintained their high social status and influence.
Though still part of traditional worship, sacrifice was less important and there was more opportunity for direct contact between gods and individual worshipers.
The gods were changed in many ways.
The gods can be seen in many different ways.
They are identified by various cults for a wide variety of beliefs names and are represented by a complex symbolism of stories, companion animals, birds, and and ritual practices that objects.
Hinduism is a descendant of ancient Indian religious concepts and practices.
The trade routes lead to Southeast Asia.
This sandstone temple of the Hindu deity Shiva, representing the mountain of the gods, was built in central India around 1000 c.e., but it reflects the architectural symbolism of Hindu temples developed in the Gupta period.
The image of the deity is located in the innermost "womb- chamber" directly beneath the tallest tower.
The Earth Goddess was saved by Vishnu Rescuing the Earth.
There is a sculpture carved into the rock wall of a cave in eastern India that depicts Vishnu as a boar saving the Earth Goddess from the ocean.
As the god treads triumphantly on a subdued snake demon and the joyful goddess clings to his snout, a chorus of gods applaud the miracle.
Vishnu is a benevolent deity who helps his devotees in times of need.
The Buddha, the popular cowherd-god Krishna, and the legendary hero are some of his incarnations.
Shiva, who lives on Mount Kailasa in the Himalayas, is a more ambiguous figure.
Both creation and destruction are part of a single process.
He performs dance steps that represent the acts of creation and destruction.
As a full-bodied mothergoddess who promotes fertility and procreation, as a loving wife to Parvati, and as the frightening deity who lets loose a torrent of violence and destruction, there are many ways in which Devi manifest herself.
The diversity of gods, sects, and local practices within Hinduism is stunning, reflecting the ethnic, linguistic, and cultural diversity of India.
There is unity within this variety.
The gods and spirits are seen as manifestations of a single divine force.
This sense of underlying unity is expressed in texts, such as the passage from the Bhagavad-Gita quoted at the beginning of this chapter, and in the different potentials of women represented in the various manifestations of Devi.
Special knowledge of sacred truths, mental and physical discipline, and extraordinary devotion to the deity are some of the ways Hinduism offers the worshiper.
Worship centers on the temples range from humble village shrines to magnificent, richly decorated stone edifices built under royal patronage.
Worshipers adore statues in which the deity may take up temporary residence.
Potent blessings are given to the man or woman who sees the divine image.
Worshipers can go on pilgrimage to famous shrines and attend festivals to show their devotion.
There is an aura of mystery and caves surrounding the mountains, sanctity, and certain trees, plants, and rocks.
Millions of Hindus bathe in the waters of the Ganges River each year in order to receive their healing and purifying power.
The idea of India as a single civilization despite enduring political fragmentation has been helped by the habit of pilgrimage, which has promoted contact and the exchange of ideas among people from different parts of India.
Depending on the worshiper's social standing and stage of life, religious duties may vary.
A young man from one of the three highest classes undergoes a ritual rebirth through the ceremony of the sacred thread, marking the completion of manhood and readiness to receive religious knowledge.
He has fulfilled his duties to the Valley first and migrated into the Indus River.
The power of the higher was used to justify the successful transformation of a religion of reincarnation.
Theravada Buddhism was close to the ideas of the phenomena.
Mahayana Buddhism developed gods, saints, people for personal deities with whom they could monasteries, and shrines, despite Hinduism's response to the needs of founder.
Buddhism's most authentic form is its denial of Hinduism, created from a Vedic base but including Dravidian importance of gods, and its expectation that indi and Buddhist elements, preserved Brahmin status and privi viduals find their own path to enlightenment.
On rare occasions when political unity in India has been achieved, it has not lasted long.
There are a number of factors that contribute to India's politics.
Different terrains called forth varied forms of organization and economic activity, and peoples occupying diverse zones differed in language and cultural practices.
People identified themselves primarily by their class and caste, not by their loyalty to a higher political authority.
The Empire of the fourth to second centuries.
The Empire of the fourth to sixth centuries.
The formation of a common Indian civilization was fostered by each extended political control.
The kingdom of Magadha, in eastern India south of the Ganges, began to play an increasingly influential role, thanks to wealth based on agriculture, iron mines, and its strategic location astride the trade routes of the eastern Ganges Basin.
India's first centralized state was to unify the empire.
The example of Alexander the Great may have inspired him.
His conquest of the Persian Empire took place in the year 326 b.c.e.
Control of trade routes has been shown in recent studies.
It prescribes the use of spies to keep an eye on everyone in the kingdom and presents schemes to increase the collection of tax revenues.
The Mauryan kings and government were supported by a tax equal to 25% of the harvest's value.
Tolls on trade, government monopolies on mining, liquor sales, and the manufacture of weapons were some of the revenues that came from.
Administrative districts were governed by close relatives and associates of the king.
Government and military personnel were paid with standard coinage throughout the empire.
The Mauryan capital was at Pataliputra.
The city was protected by a timber wall and a moat and extended along the riverbank for 8 miles.
Busy and crowded, it was governed by six committees with responsibility for manufacturing, trade, sales, taxes, the welfare of foreigners, and the registration of births and deaths.
Hundreds of people were killed, wounded or deported during his conquest of Kalinga, a coastal region southeast of Magadha.
Overwhelmed by the brutality of this.
He con victory, the young monarch became a convert to Buddhism and preached moderation and religious tolerance in both government and private life.
The earliest decipherable Indian writing can be found in the inscriptions that have the earliest surviving Indian.
For a long time in the past, improper conduct toward Brahmins and ascetics, as well as violence toward creatures, have increased.
The sound of war drums has become the call to morality because of the practice of morality by King Ashoka.
Government officials are appointed to rule over thousands of human beings in the expectation that they will win the affection of all men.
My children are all men.
I want my children to fare well and be happy in this world and the next, just as I want my men to do the same.
There should be no glorification of one's own sect or denunciation of another's sect for no reason.
Ashoka was not naive.
After Ashoka's death, the Mauryan Empire prospered.
It collapsed from the pressure of attacks in the northwest because of the expense of maintaining a large army and administrative bureaucracy.
Five hundred years later another state exercised control over northern India.
The Greco-Bactrian kingdom was the first.
The art of this period and the designs of coins have Greek influence.
Large-scale movements of peoples set off by the pressure of Han Chinese forces on the Xiongnu resulted in occupation by two nomadic groups from Central Asia.
The people of Iran were driven southwest along the mountain barrier of the Pamirs and Himalayas.
The Silk Road and Arabian seaports were connected to by the Kushan kingdom at its height, which fostered trade and prosperity.
Before the Mauryan era, the eastern Ganges region had a patchwork of small principalities.
India was at the center of international land and sea trade routes that linked China, Southeast Asia, Central Asia, the Middle East, East Africa, and the lands of the Mediterranean.
The expansion and prosperity of urban centers was fostered by the growth of crafts, the use of coins, and long-distance commerce.
In the absence of a central authority, guilds of merchants and artisans became politically powerful in the towns.
They were wealthy patrons of culture and endowed the religious sects with richly decorated temples and monuments.
The last centuries b.c.e.
Proud kings, beautiful queens, wars among kinship groups, heroic conduct, and chivalric values are said to have occurred in the past, but the political forms, social organization, and other elements of cultural context are not mentioned in the epics.
Yudhishthira is reluctant to accept ship groups in early India because of the destructive battle between related kin.
The most tant to fight his own kinsmen is taught by the god Krishna to fulfill his duty as a warrior.
Death doesn't mean anything in a universe where souls will be reborn again in sacred literature, a dialogue between the great warrior and again.
When Krishna reveals his true appearance--awesome Arjuna and the god Krishna and overwhelmingly powerful--and his identity as time itself, the force behind all creation and on duty and the fate of the destruction, it's the final moment.
The tension in Indian civili spirit can be solved with the help of the Bhagavad-Gita.
Significant advances in science and technology were made during this era.
Indian doctors have a lot of knowledge of herbal remedies.
Sanskrit became a formal, literary, and administrative language as a result of his work.
The Prakrits became the ancestors of the modern languages of northern and central India.
The king is a Hindu.
The period began in the third century b.c.e.
Music, dance, and drama were performed for the Tamil religious beauty of nature.
A new imperial entity took shape in the north in the early fourth century after the decline of the Kushan and Satavahana regimes.
The founder called himself Chandra Mauryan predecessor on a Gupta because he consciously modeled himself on the first Mauryan king.
The capital of the Mauryans was at Pataliputra, which was never controlled by the monarchs of this dynasty.
The year reigns of his three successors--the war-loving Samudra Gupta, Chandra Gupta II, and Kumara Gupta--were controlled by a combination of northern and central India.
The intelligence network of the Gupta was smaller and less pervasive.
In the core of the empire, a standing army, whose strength lay in the excellent horsemanship (learned from the nomadic Kushans) and skill with bow and arrow of its cavalry, maintained tight control and taxation.
A state that acquires by kinship groups made annual donations of tribute and garrisons were stationed at key frontier prestige and power points.
Villages were managed by a headman and council of elders, while the attractive cultural guilds of artisans and merchants had important administrative roles in the cities.
The empire was limited in its ability to enforce its will onoutlying areas.
The splendor, beauty, and order were used as a medium of persuasion at the capital and royal court.
The Gupta was a potent advertisement for the benefits of association with the empire.
Empire in India and Srivijaya luxury goods and profits from trade were redistributed to dependents through the exchange in Southeast Asia.