Japan had a growing population and limited natural resources.
Japan exported manufactured goods in the 1920s in order to pay for imports of food and essential raw materials.
Japan was vulnerable to every boom and bust because of its dependence on world trade.
Japan's colonial empire was supported by these economic realities.
Japanese leaders saw colonial expansion in terms of international prestige and national defense before World War I.
They believed that control of Taiwan, Korea, and Manchuria provided an "outer ring of defense" to protect the home islands from Russian attack.
Japan's colonies were essential for markets, raw materials, and economic growth in the 1920s.
Japanese women did not have the right to vote until 1946 after they pressed for political freedom in the 1920s.
Like these suffragists, some Japanese women adopted Western fashions.
The majority of workers in modern Japanese textile factories were women.
The dualistic economy was created by Japan's rapid industrial development.
The other sector of the economy was dominated by a large number of peasant farmers and craftsmen.
The result was a weak middle class.
The Meiji period began in Japan and lasted until the end of World War II.
Behind the facade of party politics, Japanese elites jockeyed savagely for power.
Cohesive leadership was an important part of Japan's modernization by the Meiji reformers.
The most serious challenge to peaceful progress was fanatical nationalism.
Japan did not flower fully until the First World War and the 1930s.
Japan's ultranationalists shared several fundamental beliefs.
They were against democracy, big business, and Marxist socialism.
They talked about the emperor's godlike qualities and the samurai warrior's code of honor.
They killed moderate leaders and plotted armed uprisings to achieve their goals.
Foreign expansion was preached by the ultranationalists.
Like Western imperialists, Japanese ultranationalists thought their mission was a noble one.
"Asia for the Asians" was their slogan.
"Our seven hundred million brothers in China and India have no other path to independence than that offered by our guidance and protection," Kita Ikki wrote in 1923.
The Great Depression of the 1930s tipped the scales in favor of the ultranationalists, who were noisy and violent in the 1920s.
In 1930, the worldwide depression hit Japan like a tidal wave.
Unemployment and raw suffering soared as exports and wages collapsed.
People listened as the ultranationalists blamed the system.
Young Japanese army officers in Manchuria, the underpopulated, resource-rich province of northeastern China controlled by the Japanese army since its victory over Russia in 1905, were among those who listened to particular care.
Japanese control over Manchuria was challenged by the rise of Chinese nationalism.
Junior Japanese officers in Manchuria collaborated with top generals in Tokyo to make an excuse for aggression in late 1931.
In 1932 Japan proclaimed Manchuria an independent state and in 1934 installed Puyi, the last emperor of China, as puppet emperor over the puppet state.
Japan resigned in protest after the League of Nations condemned Japanese aggression.
The army reporting directly to the Japanese emperor was an independent force that was subject to no outside control.
The Japanese conquest of Manchuria was a disaster for China.
The Japanese aggression in Manchuria drew attention away from modernizing efforts.
The Nationalist government lost interest in social reform after promoting a massive boycott of Japanese goods.
The Nationalist government neglected land reform after 1931.
The land problem in China is similar to that of France or Russia, according to a Chinese economist.
"11 Mao said yes."
Jiang Jieshi's Nationalists devoted their energies between 1930 and 1934 to great campaigns of encirclement and eradication of the Communists' rural power base in southeastern China because they had abandoned land reform.
In one of the most incredible sagas of modern times, the main Communist army broke out, beat off attacks, and retreated 6,000 miles in twelve months to a remote region on the northwestern border in 1934.
The estimated 100,000 men and women who began the Long March, only 8,000 to 10,000 reached the final destination.
Tens of thousands of people lost their lives when the Chinese Communist army retreated to a remote region on the northwestern border of China in 1934.
After urban uprisings ordered by Stalin failed in 1927, Mao Zedong formed a self-governing Communist soviet in mountainous southern China.
The Communists were well positioned for guerilla war against the Japanese after the Nationalists attacked the Long March.
Mao built up his forces again, established a new territorial base, and won local peasant support in unprecedented ways.
Mao's forces did not pillage and rape across the countryside as imperialist armies had always done.
Mao set up schools so peasants could learn to read and write.
The peasants were provided with basic medical care by the health clinics established by Mao.
Rather than stealing peasants' produce, Mao's armies put down their weapons and helped peasants plant and harvest their crops.
For the first time in Chinese history, the peasants received economic and social justice when the Communist courts tried the warlords and landlords.
Politics in Japan became more chaotic.
Unable to force China to give up more territory in northern China, they used a small incident near Beijing as a pretext for a general attack.
The beginning of World War II in Asia was marked by this.
Japanese troops quickly took Beijing and northern China after the Nationalist government formed a united front with the Communists.
The Japanese launched an attack on the river after taking the port of Shanghai.
During the Long March and at the army's final destination atYan'an, the soldiers treated Mao's forces with respect.
They helped the farmers with their crops, set up schools and health clinics, and tried to punish the landlords.
The Japanese air force bombed Chinese cities during World War II.
The capital fell in 1937.
Japanese soldiers rampaged through the city for seven weeks.
They raped as many as 80,000 Chinese women and murdered as many as 300,000 Chinese civilians.
The "Rape of Nanjing" and other Japanese atrocities shocked the world.
With tensions rising in Europe, the Western powers did not take action.
Japanese armies occupied large portions of coastal China in the late 1930s.
China and Japan were bogged down in a savage stalemate in 1939 as Europe headed toward another great war.
A spectacular example of conflicting nationalisms was provided by the Second Sino-Japanese War.
There was a rise in nationalism in Southeast Asia.
Nationalists in France and the Philippines wanted genuine political independence and freedom from foreign rule.
They ran against a wall.
America and Japan were obstacles to Filipino independence.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was written by the French and they refused to export it.
The growth of an equally stubborn Communist opposition under Ho Chi Minh was stimulated by this uncompromising attitude.
A well-established nationalist movement in the Philippines achieved greater success.
The Spanish in the Philippines were indefatigable missionaries.
The Filipinos were 80 percent Catholic by the late 19th century.
Filipinos have a common cultural heritage and racial origin.
In 1843, a higher percentage of people in the Philippines could read than in Spain.
The westernized elite turned first to reform and then to revolution as a result of economic development.
They are being disciplined by an Uncle Sam who is trying to teach them self-government.
One of Cuba's revolutionary heroes is reading a book to the left of the Filipino insurrectionist who is wearing a dunce cap.
When the United States took the Philippines from Spain in the Spanish-American War of 1898, Filipino nationalists were bitterly disappointed.
If the Philippines could not establish a stable, secure government, it could be seized by Germany or Britain, according to the Americans.
The United States promoted capitalistic economic development in the Philippines.
In British India, an elected legislature was given some real powers.
Demands for independence grew in both India and France.
American racial attitudes were an important factor.
Americans borrowed practices from the American South to treat Filipinos as inferiors.
Many Filipinos were made passionate nationalists by American racism.
The Great Depression had the most radical impact on the Philippines.
The Philippines appeared to be a liability as the United States collapsed in the 1930s.
The American farm groups wanted protection from cheap Filipino sugar.
The labor unions wanted an end to Filipino immigration.
The Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth and scheduled independence in 1944.
Immigration was limited to fifty Filipinos per year, and sugar imports were reduced.
The continued U.S. presence was denounced by some Filipino nationalists.
Japan was expanding economically into the Philippines and throughout Southeast Asia.
A new threat to Filipino independence would come from Japan by 1939.
The collapse of the Ottoman Empire in World War I left a power vacuum that both Western imperialists and Asian nationalists sought to fill.
Strong leaders, such as Turkey's Mustafa Kemal, led successful nationalist movements.
The League of Nations-mandated Arab states had British and French influence decline in the 1920s and 1930s as Arab nationalists pushed for independence.
The situation in Palestine deteriorated in the interwar years as more and more European Jews migrated there.
The first decades of the twentieth century saw increasing resistance from Indian nationalists to Britain's rule over the Indian subcontinent.
The British were persuaded by Gandhi's satyagraha to end their colonial rule in India.
China's 1911 Revolution ended the ancient dynastic system before the Great War, while the 1919 May Fourth Movement renewed nationalist hopes.
Mao's Communists and Jiang Jieshi's Nationalist Party would fight for control of a unified China.
militarists and ultranationalists launched an aggressive campaign of foreign expansion based on "Asia for Asians" which contributed to the beginning of World War II in Japan.
Filipino nationalists achieved independence from the United States during the Great Depression.
Other Asians as well as Europeans were included in Asia.
In Asia, nationalism took root in the late 19th and early 20th century like it did in Europe in the 19th century.
Asian modernizers pressed the nationalist cause by demanding an end to outdated conservative traditions that they argued only held back the development of modern, independent nations capable of throwing off Western domination and existing as equals.
Some of the twentieth century's most remarkable leaders were produced by the nationalist cause in Asia.
In Chapter 32 we will discuss how nationalist leaders shaped the freedom struggle and the resulting independence according to their own ideological and personal visions.
Mao is the giant among the nationalist leaders who emerged in Asia, but he replaced imperialist rule with one-party Communist rule.
The partition of British India into Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan and Bangladesh destroyed Gandhi's dream of a unified India.
In Chapter 33, we will see that India and Pakistan are bitter enemies.
After a series of wars with Israel, Egypt began to play a significant role in efforts to find a peaceful resolution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
The conflict continues because of nationalist and religious feelings on both sides.
After forcing the French out of Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh faced the United States in a long and deadly war.
Vietnam gained independence in 1975, but was under one-party Communist control like China.
Japan was an exception to what happened in the rest of Asia.
The Japanese implemented a program of modernization and westernization after a long period of isolation.
After the Great War, Japan took control of former German colonies as mandated territories in China, Korea, Vietnam, Taiwan, and other places.
We will see in the next chapter how ultranationalism drove national policy in the 1930s, leading to Japan's defeat in World War II.
Explain the significance of each item.
In the twentieth century, Asian leaders adopted several of the ideologies of change that evolved in Europe in the 19th century.
Give examples of where these ideologies were adopted.
Compare and contrast Japan's actions in the late 19th century and the first three decades of the twentieth century with those of the European imperial powers at the same time.
A university professor is Gandhi's grandson.
A new biography of the controversial emperor draws on new and reappraised sources.
It is the classic introduction to the region's history.
The study of modern China is important.
The film was nominated for eleven Academy Awards, and won Best Picture, Best Director, and Best Actor.
The last Chinese emperor, Puyi, who ascended to the throne when he was two years old, was forced to abdicate in 1912, and this is a beautifully filmed epic biographical movie about him.
He was made puppet emperor by the Japanese in 1934.
There are links to other websites for most of East Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea.
Links to other sites are included in the starting point for sources on India's history.