Centralized agencies are the best way to organize and operate the federal government.
The French word bureau is derived from the desk of a government worker and is used to describe large administrative agencies.
Bureaucracies have the same characteristics.
There are rules and regulations that drive them and they reflect a hierarchical authority.
Four million government workers make up the federal bureaucracy.
If you take the number of state and local government workers into account, it's even greater.
More than 10% of the federal employees work in Washington, D.C. More than a third of federal employees work for defense agencies.
About 15-20 percent of the workers employed by entitlement agencies are employed by SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATA SALVAGEDATAs SALVAGEDATAs SALVAGEDATAs SALVAGEDATAs SALVAGEDATAs SALVAGEDATAs SALVAGEDATAs SALVAGEDATAs SALVAGEDATAs SALVAGEDATAs SALVAGEDATAs SALVAGEDATAs SALVAGEDATAs SALVAGEDATAs SALVAGEDATAs SALVAGEDATAs SALVAGEDATAs SALVAGEDATAs SALVAGEDATA Ethnic, gender, and religious groups make up the background of federal employees.
Civil service regulations and political patronage are how they are hired.
Many people feel that the bureaucracy is growing, but it is actually decreasing in size.
There are different ways of being held accountable.
Federal workers are complex individuals who are very professional in their jobs.
The departments are given the title to distinguish them from the cabinet.
Agencies and administration are governmental bodies that have the same status as the cabinet.
Agencies that regulate certain aspects of the private sector are called commission.
They could be investigative, advisory, or reporting bodies.
A corporation is an agency headed by a board of directors.
The attorney general is the head of the Justice Department, which is one of the 15 cabinet departments.
The president appoints the secretaries with the approval of the Senate.
There are also undersecretaries in each department.
Each policy area has its own budget and staff.
The regulatory agencies are known as independent regulatory agencies because they act in a way that is legislative when issuing regulations and quasi judicial when enforcing penalties for violations of their regulations.
The first created independent agency was the Interstate Commerce Commission.
The Sherman Antitrust Act was used to determine which businesses were in violation.
The FTC regulates fair trade, encourages competition, and is responsible for evaluating unfair or deceptive advertising or products that may be unsafe.
The FDA regulates the contents, marketing, and labeling of food and drugs.
The FCC regulates the television and radio industry.
The SEC was established during the New Deal and regulates the sale of securities and the stock markets.
The Clean Air Act is one of the laws the EPA implements.
OSHA sets safety and health standards for the work place.
The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), 1972--CPSC tests and reports about products that may endanger the public and issues warnings for those products deemed unsafe.
The Federal Election Commission was created by the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 and is responsible for monitoring campaign contributions and providing funding to presidential candidates through matching grants.
The Tennessee Valley Authority was created during the New Deal and the Resolution Trust Corporation was created in the 1980's to deal with bank failures.
The National Science Foundation supports scientific research and development, the General Services Administration handles government purchasing, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration coordinates the country's efforts in outer space.
The day to day operation of the government is aided by the agencies.
Pressure brought on by interest groups, political parties, and the private sector modify bureaucratic behavior.
Bureaucracies are not separate from the other branches of government.
They need to be sensitive to interest groups, the media, and public opinion.
The president appoints and directs the bureaucracy, which is linked to Congress through oversight.
Agency operations are highly publicized through the media when they have an impact on the public.
Public opinion and interest groups try to influence the agencies.
Bureaucracies are part of the executive branch.
The regulatory agencies are sensitive to the president.
Knowing that their agency heads are appointed by the president makes them respond to his direction at times.
The Environmental Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration have come under scrutiny in the past.
Agencies must abide by the executive orders issued by the president.
The FDA set up guidelines for testing when President Clinton ordered the import of the abortion pill.
The Office of Management and Budget can recommend increases and decreases.
The growth of the agency is provided by the budgetary process.
The president can reorganize federal departments.
The Departments of Energy and Education were not abolished by President Reagan.
Congress uses similar tactics.
The Senate becomes sensitive to issues on Congress's agenda because they must approve both presidential appointments and agency budgets.
Agency heads are called before congressional committees to testify about issues related to the workings of the agency.
Congressional oversight refers to the review, monitoring, and supervision of federal agencies, programs, activities, and policy implementation.
The iron triangle concept is an example of the interrelationship between the public, the government, and interest groups.
The iron triangle network is a pattern of relationships between the executive branch, Congress, and special interest groups.
During the height of the Vietnam War, the relationship between defense-related government agencies and private industry that profited from the war became an antiwar cry.
The potential for abuse exists if the EPA has too close a relationship with the industry heads of factories that they are regulating.
The iron triangle concept can be visualized if you review the Department of Health and Human Services.
Legislation that is passed and related to health must be explained to the public, as well as various congressional committees and interest groups such as insurance groups, senior citizen groups, and the medical community.
The impact of the federal bureaucracy has been on public policy.
The impact of the independent regulatory agencies has been significant.
One of the landmark regulatory cases is the Supreme Court decision of Munn v Illinois.
There was a dispute over whether Illinois had the power to regulate the railroad haulage rates of grain.
The railroad was forced to follow state rates by Illinois Grange laws.
The state had the right to regulate this private industry because it was in the public interest.
The interstate commerce act and the interstate commerce commission were influenced by this ruling.
In 1994 the agency came under fire by Congress and was defended by the same interests who were critical of its creation.
The first independent agency to be created was slashed by Congress.
To see how influential regulatory agencies have become, you have to trace your daily routine.
Each example has a linkage component described in the last section.
Presidential direction, acts of Congress, and court decisions are what motivated them.
The public, interest groups, and the media reacted to the process.
Critics of regulation point to the fact that the costs far exceed the benefits of the entire regulation process, even though many of these regulations and policies are in the public interest.
One of the issues that is still being debated is the fear of an over regulated society.
The budgetary process of bureaucratic agencies is controlled by Congress.
The independence of some bureaucratic agencies comes from laws passed by Congress.
Choice C is incorrect because bureaucrats don't usually have close contact with the media.
Many bureaucrats are appointed for longer terms than the president, so they have a continuity of service.
Choices A, B, C, and D would all have an impact on the Defense Department's budget.
The minority party doesn't control the agenda so Choice E wouldn't be a significant influence.
The agency is responsible for the president.
Congress uses congressional oversight and has some control over the budgetary process.
There have been calls to abolish the Departments of Education and Energy.
Legislators see choice D as a weakness of the modern bureaucracy.
President Clinton and Vice President Gore came out with REGO, or reinventing government, because they wanted to downsize the federal government.
You will be able to make connections if you think of the Food and Drug Administration or Environmental Protection Agency.
The agencies' regulations can be nullified by court rulings.
In the name of national security, the Central Intelligence Agency may want to act independently.
It is responsible to the president.
The other agencies have their own status.
Choices B, C, D, and E reflect that issue.
The abolition of a non functioning department in another agency is suggested by Choice A.
That isn't within the authority of a bureaucracy.
Administrative responsibilities are given to Choices A, B, D, and E.
The president can use a bully pulpit to influence the direction of an agency, can issue an executive order that negates an agency directive, and can recommend a reduction or increase in the budgets of these agencies.
An iron triangle relationship is when a bureaucratic agency, special interest group, and legislative arm work together to develop policies.
Many programs have returned to the states because they had to deal with the issue of the size of their agencies.
The Unfunded Mandates Act was passed in 1994.
Laws or quasi legislative directives can be used for these policies.
Unfunded mandates are when the states are required to implement the policies and also pay for them, regardless of whether the states support the objective of the policy.
The legislation requires the federal government to analyze and evaluate every mandate imposed on the states in an attempt to reduce those mandates that would create an undue burden on the states.
This legislation was one of the first pieces of legislation signed by the 104th Congress and was supported by President Clinton.
Legislative regulations that have been imposed on the states include social security payroll taxes, wages and hours regulations, clean air requirements, as well as implementation of entitlement programs.
The states have argued that the states should be protected from the federal government.
Many states simply raise state taxes to pay for unfunded mandates, which puts a burden on the taxpayer.
There is an unfunded mandate imposed by the EPA.
Guidelines to control pollutants were required by the EPA as part of the 1972 Clean Air Act.
The goal of the act is for the EPA to develop air-quality standards.
The provisions of law are executed by establishing national pollution limitations, such as requiring automobiles to meet emission standards and factories to establish pollutant controls.
Penalties were established by the EPA.
It instituted lawsuits to enforce its environmental regulations.
An oversight process is part of the law.
Congress can hold hearings to see how the law is working.
The Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the establishment of a Superfund were all updated.
The EPA was given more responsibility to implement the new law.
One example of how the EPA created a regulation that impacted on the states was the installation of centralized emission control stations to replace local service stations in states with higher than normal pollution problems.
The affected states had to ask for a waiver because they weren't prepared to implement the directive.
Sometimes law to regulation results in regulation not being implemented.
An unfunded mandate is a policy imposed on the states by the federal government.
Two points are earned for explaining the law.
One point is earned for giving a legislative example of how the Unfunded Mandates Act impacted the states and one point is earned for giving a legislative example of how the Unfunded Mandates Act impacted the federal government.