"There is no place like a young man in a great city," Darrow wrote.
Darrow felt despair at one point.
In 1860, less than 20 percent of Americans lived in an urban area, defined as a place with more than 2,500 inhabitants.
More Americans lived in cities by 1910 than in the nation as a whole on the eve of the Civil War.
The country now has three of the world's ten largest cities.
The Northeast was the most urbanized region, but the industrial Midwest was catching up.
Los Angeles, Seattle, and San Francisco became hub cities on the Pacific coast.
Atlanta and Birmingham were thriving in the South.
Experiments that ranged from the amuse ment park to the art museum were encouraged by the scale of the industrial cities.
Some of the city's problems were worse than Clarence Darrow's.
slums, pollution, disease, and corrupt political machines flourished.
Homeless men slept in the shadows of mansions of the superrich, while fasttalking hucksters enjoyed prime opportunities to fleece newcomers.
Industrial cities became important sites of political innovation and reform.
George Bellows was a member of the Ash Can school of painters.
Madison Square was crowded with streetcars, horse-drawn wagons, and pedestrians during the winter rush hour.
Trolley lines should be moved off the streets.
The "el" or elevated The New Metropolis railroad, which began operation as early as 1871 in New York City, became a safer alternative.
Mark Twain arrived in New York in 1867 and said planners built down not up.
Boston opened a short busi underground line in 1897 and by 1904 a subway running ness, you cannot even pay a friendly call without it.
Railroads were used to reorganize urban geography before the Civil War.
The growth of outlying residential districts began to include areas for finance and well-to-do.
The high cost of transportation effectively splits the wealthy districts.
The trend accelerated in the late nine grant wards.
It was a confusing world.
Before the Civil War, affluent wives and children enjoyed refuge from the pollution in cities.
In the countryside, where the nephew of a wealthy Southern Pacific Railroad man could draw water power from streams, Henry Huntington sprang up and helped foster an emerging suburban ideal as he ful fuel and raw materials and recruit workers.
Huntington's family fortune was invested in Los Angeles ports, where urban merchants bought and sold goods for transportation and real estate.
Middle-class buyers came to trade.
The change was made possible by the steam engines.
Anticipating on unreliable water power.
Americans' love for affordable increased the scale of industry.
A factory employing single- family homes near large cities, Huntington had thousands of workers who could instantly create a small city.
Commercial building methods have changed.
Industrial cities are also designed by architects.
Warehouse invented the skyscraper, a building supported by its from the typical city before districts converted to small-scale steel skeleton.
Port cities are used to enclosing the structure.
skyscrapers allowed downtown offered cheap labor, an essential element to profit from small plots of land, even though they were expensive to build.
The striking designs were commissioned by residents as symbols of the industrial city.
The first skyscraper was designed by William Le Baron Jenney in Chicago.
Jenney's steel-girder lines, which each trolley touched with a pole mounted construction, inspired the creativity of American archi on its roof.
Trolleys became the primary mode of transportation.
Congestion design of buildings that expressed form rather than accidents led to demands that masked their structure and function.
The headquarters of the nationwide Woolworth's five-anddime chain became a dominant feature of the New York skyline under construction.
Manhattan had more skyscrapers than any other city.
At the end of a long working day, city dwellers flocked strong columns gave skyscrapers a "proud and soaring" to this free entertainment.
Nothing, declared a presence and offered plentiful natural light for workers observer, matched the panorama of Broadway inside.
The beginning of Manhattan's modern skyline was marked by the Newcomers and Neighborhoods fifty-five-story Woolworth Building.
The urban arrives from the countryside.
Rural amenities used to be electric light.
Industrialization relocated early 19th century, but gas lamps were too dim for household tasks, and had been used for residential light since the and weaving cloth.
Finding ways to improve streets and public spaces.
Farm daughters sought paid employment in the 1870s as generating technology became commercially viable.
The age of electricity proved to be better.
Many sons left the Wanamaker's department store in Philadelphia in farm and set aside part of their pay to help the people in need.
Gaslights were replaced by electric streetlights.
Explaining why she moved to Chicago.
America's cities became homes for millions of residents because of electric streetlights, as one magazine put it in 1912.
Nightlife became less Irish and more appealing in other northern countries.
The journalist described the cities.
In 1894, immi Broadway arrived in a great metropolis and all the shop fronts were lighted.
Minneapolis used to be lit by dim gaslight at night.
The first lighting of a 257-foot tower topped by a ring of electric arcs took place on February 28, 1884.
As Minneapolis became an electric city, the electric poles on the right would grow into a lot of poles and overhead wires.
He heard a Polish voice offer a son of Ukrainian immigrants.
"From sheer joy," he said, "tears welled up are born in this country."
A lot of people are trying to find jobs.
The table shows the ten largest cities in the world by population in millions.
California's San Andreas Fault had caused earthquakes for centuries, but when a major metropolis arose nearby, it created new potential for catastrophe.
Many residents were asleep when the earthquake occurred.
The photograph shows the damage caused by the fires.
The exact number of people killed by the earthquake will never be known.
The earthquake felt as far away as Los Angeles, Oregon, and central Nevada.
Researchers opened new lines of inquiry to predict tremors and build buildings that could survive them.
The Bridgeman Art Library is part of the Universal History Archive.
As more and more laborers arrived from the south, New York Jews frequented a lively Yiddish theater.
I had never been paid wages by the province or town.
He settled with his members and paid support in case of death or disabil uncle in New Jersey.
The work here was just as hard as it was on the job.
I didn't mind that because I am a club member.
We must have an orga in San Francisco.
Francisco's Chinatown, Italian North Beach, and Jewish became Bank of America as it expanded across the West.
The institutions of many kinds both discrimination and immigrants' desire to stick sprang up to serve ethnic urban communities, as a result of being driven by Like Giannini's bank.
Borhoods diversified and incorporated Italians and Jews.
As the plaza became a site for business and tours, it was more than 50 percent African American.
Immigrants were pushed into working-class settled in northern cities, but not in the numbers that neighborhoods like Belvedere and Boyle Heights would arrive during the Great Migration of World which sprang up to the east.
African Americans sought opportunities in the city.
Almost 90 percent of American blacks were worse off than African Americans in 1900, but more foreign-born immigrants moved to the South.
The small African American community that had established itself on the city's West Side was settled in 1893 by Wiley and Fannie Cherry.
The Cherrys seem to have prospered.
The family portrait taken in 1906 shows them entering the black middle class.
After 1900, long settled urban blacks like the Cherrys became uncomfortable and relations with needy rural newcomers were tense.
The violence was fueled by a nasty political campaign Europe, Mexico, or Asia, working-class city residents that sensationalized false charges of "negro needed cheap housing near their jobs."
Black faced grim choices were attacked by groups of white men.
As urban land values climbed, Atlantans invaded middle-class black neighborhoods and tore down houses that had been occupied by middle-class families who were moving away from the industrial area.
Twenty-four core were killed by the rioters.
There were race riots in cramped, airless apartments.
In New York City's Tenderloin district, tene ments fostered rampant disease and infant mortality.
In 1901, York's Tenement House Law required interior courts, indoor toilets, and fire safeguards for new structures.
The law did not affect the 44,000 tenements that existed in Manhattan and the Bronx.
The economic facts of urban development made it hard for reformers to succeed.
Industrial workers couldn't afford transportation and had to live near their jobs.
Landlords made a significant profit from high density, cheaply built housing.
Industrial cities could be fun to live in.
In the 19th century, white middle-class Protestants set the cultural standard and immigrants and the poor were expected to follow their example.
Mass-based entertainments emerged among the working class in the cities.
The entertainments spread from the working class to the middle class.
Cities became centers for intellectual life.
Atlanta race shows are depicted on the cover of a Paris newsmagazine.
The artist's dramatic illustration shows that the artist's appeal is to include middle-class audiences.
Racist violence could be a source of embarrassment for the United States in the early 1900s.
In New York's Eleventh Ward, an average of 986 per acre was occupied by working girls who refrained from less sons.
One investigator in Philadel might watch a movie about twenty-six people living in nine rooms once or twice a week.
She reported that the amusement parks were used as kitchens.
The only toilet in York's Coney Island was located at New partment in the yard.
Americans suffered the most at African world's fairs.
Between 1895 and 1904, working-class and model tenements financed by public-spirited citizens were installed at sev elite city residents who were unwilling to accept a limited return on their investment.
Coney Island's popular beaches were not helped by private philanthropy.
Between 1865 and 1901 the city limits of Chicago increased by more than 300 percent.
The dumbbell tenement won a contest for a design that met an 1879 requirement for every room to have a window.
The air shaft was a dumping ground for garbage and provided almost no light for the interior rooms.
The tenements were so bad that they became the catalyst for the next wave of New York housing reform.
The roller coaster's roots go back to 1884 when it was installed at New York's Coney Island.
The goal was to create the biggest possible thrill when the Jack Rabbit Race was built.
Angelenos journeyed by trolley to Long Beach to take a dip in the ocean as well as to ride the new roller coaster.
Ragtime became wildly popular among roller coasters, lagoon plunges, and "hootchy-kootchy" audiences who heard in its dance shows.
Cuban tious rhythms were exciting, and revolutionary Jose Marti worked as a journalist with Victorian hymns and parlor songs.
Scott Joplin was the master of the genre.
There wasn't any serious music out of the ragtime.
Coney Island took piano lessons from a German teacher.
The young Americans embraced the old style.
Ragtime ushered in booming urban entertainment as they embraced each other.
Pan Alley was the nickname for New York City's song more than 500 dance halls by 1910.
The most famous sold more than a million copies of restau sheet music, as well as audio recordings for the newly rant jobs rather than domestic service so they would invented phonograph.
One publishing Bear called for a close body agent to visit "sixty joints a week" to test new songs, contact and plenty of hip movement.
Despite widespread African American musicians bringing a syncopated denunciation, dance mania quickly spread from the beat that began, by the 1890s, to work its way into urban working classes to rural and middle-class youth.
Performers of color became stars in American popular culture.
W. C. Handy, born in named for its ragged rhythm, combined a steady beat Alabama with a syncopated music from the cotton fields of the Mississippi.
Blues music is practical.
There was a line between working-class treats and casual prostitution in "St. Louis Blues".
Dat man got a heart lak a rock cast in the sea, world in which large numbers of residents were young or else he wouldn't gone so far from me.
The 1900 census found that 20 percent of women in Detroit, Philadelphia, and Boston lived as boarders and lodgers, not in family loneliness or bitter disappointment, and that more than Blues spoke to the emotional lives of young urbanites.
New collec ties were forged in the city due to the social opportuni activities of single men.
In a world of strangers, the late nine tive experiences have been called by one historian.
Influence on twentieth-century American cul boardinghouses, restaurants, and personal ture can be found.
By the time "St. Louis Blues" was published, the city had bachelors all the comforts of composer Irving Berlin, a Russian Jewish immigrant, home and an array of men's clubs.
As in the cultures, the lyrics often featured sexual innuendo.
Middle-class men, both of such music, marked the arrival of modern youth who were straight and gay.
Its enduring features were "crossover" music or to find friends.
A medical student from the black working class remembered being taken to a ball at which he was taken to find five hundred gay and lesbian couples African American musical styles.
In the city, many young people were harassed and moral reformers found parental oversight weaker than it had been before.
Arrests were few at amusement parks and dance halls.
Gay sex shows and the new custom of dating were popular among the working class and were lucrative for those who ran them.
The gay urban escort offered a dramatic challenge to Victorian ideals.
The rise of great cities offered a world of pleasure, sexual adventure, and danger for elites.
Millionaires wanted a man's money more than the man himself.
As early as possible.
In Boston, symphony orchestras were formed because they earned less money than men in New York.
Europe was tried in new experiments.
The Metropolitan Opera, founded in 1884 by wealthy businessmen, maintain strict standards of respectability, which made them aware that their prospects for marriage depended on a astic crowds to hear the innovative work of Richard.
Others became charities.
The Met shocked audiences in 1907 with present girls eager for a good time.
The first major art museum in the United States, the Corcoran Gallery of Art, opened in Washington, D.C. in 1869, and it was a matter of sexual favors for some women.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art was built in York in the late 19th century.
The greatest library benefactor was steel St. Louis, "bribery was a joke", while Andrew Carnegie was the greatest library benefactor because he operated a private company that would build a library in any town or city that most of the city's street was.
Carnegie had profit by 1907.
Historians think that Steffens and others spent more than $32 million to establish sand libraries throughout the United States.
Patrons of Carnegie's libraries industrial cities grew with breathtaking speed, they could read in addition to books, and an increasing array of governance posed a serious problem.
Water, gas, and electricity were in short supply when Pulitzer developers built streetcar lines in the 1890s.
This preference is for Thinking Like a Historian.
Americans believed that great Pulitzer's sensational coverage was often irresponsible.
It was so tempting for the United States to declare ment opportunities during the war against Spain.
From the ruins, new cities sprang up, exposing scandals and injustices.
The papers should challenge the powerful by speaking of the Francisco earthquake of 1906, which they believed to be a catastrophic Chicago fire in 1871.
The term were ward bosses and, at the top, powerful, but muckrakers' influence was profound.
The leaders who started at the bottom and inspired thousands of readers to get involved in reform worked their way up.
Machines deal with problems caused by patronage, arranged for urban services, and devoted industrialization.
One of the most famous muckrakers was Lincoln, who was known for helping the unemployed or grieving families.
Mass-market newspapers were among the businesses that served urban consumers.
Elizabeth Jane Cochrane took her pen name from a popular song.
She filed many investigative pieces.
An old woman stood on the side of a building.
She had a ragged shawl over her head.
The skirt was around her knees.
The streets were covered in thick and slushy rain and sleet.
The old woman didn't give a sign that she was cold.
She was looking around the corner.
Her eyes were fixed on the door.
Three small boys, unmindful of the weather, came trudging down the street.
They came upon the old woman as they turned the corner.
She was made for the station-house and taken the responsibility of being a foster mother to the boys.
Newspapers sold bundles of one hundred papers to boys and girls, who were able to resell as many as they wanted.
The caption suggests one strategy for selling papers.
The National Child Labor Committee has a person named Hine who takes many such images.
His brother gives him more.
Joseph said that he was the best at the Library of Congress.
A huge mass meeting was held at New Irving Hall last night to support the newsboys' strike.
The audiences fought the little fellows.
Consider the tone and point of view of the sources.
What do they say about American attitudes?
We will strike and restrike until we get it.
The boys said they would.
Irishman Plunkitt was one of the primary sources from this period.
Plunkitt's Fifteenth District was filling up with Italians and Russians by the 1890s.
He might attend an Italian success on a given day.
They arranged for companies to funeral in the afternoon and a Jewish wedding in the evening, as well as bringing clean water and gaslight.
Wherever he went, he brought gifts.
There was no one in the world who could offer a helping hand to his people's troubles.