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4.3: Hearing: The Auditory System
Humans are capable of a crude form of echolocation.
It is possible that blind persons can sometimes detect objects a few feet away from them.
Ben, who was blind at three years old, learned to make clicking noises that bounced off the surface and let him know where he was.
He plays video games and rides his skateboard.
The same parts of the brain associated with visual images in sighted people become active when blind people use their ability to navigate in their environments.
Although the echolocation explanation can't be ruled out completely, the researchers who studied TN argue that echolocation is not an effective way to detect small objects.
It's clear that blindsight and echolocation are examples of how subtle signals from neural pathways can impact our sensory experience.
A person with this condition can tell us the shape and color of an object but can't name it.
Pick out the different types of perception.
Sound is a kind of mechanical energy that travels through air.
The sound waves are created by the vibrating of air.
We hear sound waves best when they travel through air.
There can't be sound in a vacuum because there aren't any airborne particles to vibrate.
Even if nobody can hear it, a falling tree makes a loud noise in the forest.
When it comes to sensitivity to pitch, age matters.
Older adults are more sensitive to higher pitch tones.
Teenagers can hear their cell phones ring while many of their parents or teachers can't because of a ring tone for cell phones.
Rival hypotheses should not be ruled out.
Refer to Figure 4.14 for important alternative measured in decibels.
The inverse of wavelength is sound wave Frequency.
The height of the cycle is the sound wave amplitude.
The frequencies for middle C and middle A are different.
The Audible instruments sound different because of their timbre and the same holds for the human Spectrum.
The human ear is sensitive to mechanical noise.
Sense receptors for hearing and vision are the same for transducing light and sound into neural activity.
The hammer, anvil, and stirrup are the bones in the body.
The sound waves are transmitted from the eardrum to the sound inner ear by the Audible ossicles.
The table shows how common sounds rank in potential harm to hearing.
For sounds between 90 and 100 decibels, no more than 15 minutes of exposure is recommended.
The level at which hearing damage begins is 85 dB.
Constant exposure may cause damage.
It interfered with the telephone conversation.
The hearing levels are comfortable.
The inner part of the cochlea is filled with a sense organ made of a thick fluid.
The base of the hearing cochlea is disturbed by sound waves and they travel to it.
Hair cells are the tissue that converts acoustic information into hearing action potentials.
The fluid of the cochlea contains hair cells that protrude into it.
Each place gets information from a specific place.
Hair cells located at the base of the basilar are excited by high-pitched tones, whereas hair cells at the top of the basilar are excited by low-pitched tones.
There are two ways to hear low-pitched tones.
The simpler way will be discussed first.
The method works well if the action mal firing rates are close to the limit.
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