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13 -- Part 6: States and Cultures in East Asia
When a Chinese strongman consolidated the south, the life of Chinese people in the south was disrupted.
Korea was closely tied to Tang China and copied China's model during the Silla period.
Between 800 and 1400 there was a lot of change in North Asia.
Korea lived in the shadows of the powerful nomad states of the Khitans, Jurchens, and Mongols.
Independent merchants and seamen of humble ori gins dominated the three-way trade between China, Korea, and Japan as conditions deteriorated.
The dynasty that emerged from this confusion was called Koryo V. Korea developed its own version of the Chinese model, just as Ja pan was doing.
The Koryo V capital was laid out on the Chinese model and the government was similar to the Tang system.
Despite Chinese influence, Korean society was still very nice.
The Chinese model of civil service exams was introduced by his successors because the government schools only admitted the sons of the best educated people.
The Koryo V aristocracy wanted to stay in the capital and only reluctantly accepted posts in the provinces.
The number of serf-slaves seems to have increased at the other end of the social scale.
Large numbers of government slaves as well as privately held slaves were included in this lowborn stratum.
Entire villages or groups of vil ages were considered lowborn.
There were occasional slave revolts, and some freed slaves did rise in status, but prejudice against anyone with slave ancestors was strong.
In China and Japan, slavery was not a major part of the social landscape.
The decline in the commercial economy in Korea was not related to China's booming economy.
The use of money declined in the countryside and there were no cities of commercial importance.
Ceramics was one industry that flourished.
The pale green Koryo V celadon pottery is decorated with designs executed in white or gray clay and has long been appreciated by connoisseurs.
monasteries became major centers of art and learning because of Buddhism.
In Song China and Kamakura Japan, Chan and Tiantai were the leading Buddhist teachings.
The founder of the Koryo V Dy nasty said that the dynasty's success was due to the Buddha's protection.
The major abbacies were occupied by people who entered the church.
Money lending and charitable works were the same roles that monasteries played in China and Japan.
In Japan and China, some monasteries had military power.
The Koryo V Dynasty was named after it after the ruling family lost most of their power.
In 1170, the palace guards massacred the civil officials at court and placed a new king on the throne.
The coup leaders abolished the privileges that had kept the aristocracy in power and appointed themselves to the top posts.
80,000 woodblocks were used to print the huge Buddhist canon in the 13th century.
The monk is working on a block.
The wooden frames that keep the blocks from warping are carved on both sides.
The domination of Korea by the Ch'oe family was similar to the situation in Japan.
The Japanese shoguns had a similar strategy because they were content to dominate the government while leaving the Koryo V king on the throne.
The Chi nese assumption that Korea was the largest, most powerful, and most advanced society in the world was not easy for Korea to accept.
When strong non-Chinese states emerged to its north in Manchuria, Korea was ready to accommodate them.
The state of Liao invaded and sacked the capital of Koryo V in the 10th century.
Koryo V became a vassal in order to avoid destruction.
Koryo V was able to repel the no madic Khitans.
South of the Yalu River, a defensive wall was built.
Koryo V agreed to send tribute to the Jurchens and their Jin Dynasty when they replaced the Khitans's Liao Dynasty.
The figurehead Koryo V kings were moved to Beijing after Korea was conquered by the Mongols.
This was a time of hardship for the Korean people.
Two hundred thousand Koreans were taken away by the Mongols in the year 1254.
The land of Korea was used as a launching point for invasions of Japan.
The depredations of the Vikings in Europe were similar to the attacks by Japanese pirates in Korea.
The harried coastal people had little choice but to retreat inland because the overlords of the Mongols did little to provide protec tion.
The rule of the Mongols in China fell apart in the fourteenth century.
The capital of Korea was briefly captured by Chinese rebels in 1361.
In the front of the room is where you can listen to the past state.
It's pointless to put it in the back of the room as it's most unlikely that anyone will see it.
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