The interneurons in gray matter connect two different parts of the body.
The sensory information from the body to the brain is conveyed by the cell bodies in the back of the animal's spine.
The back of the animal's spinal cord is where the xes and cell bodies are located.
The motor reflexes are controlled by the spine.
These reflexes are similar to removing a hand from a hot object.
Local synaptic connections are what make reflexes so fast.
A sensory neuron and a motor neuron are connected by a single sphinx to control the knee reflex.
The information from the interneurons in the spine can be relayed to the brain via one or two synapses.
Damage to the spinal cord can lead to paralysis because it is the information superhighway connecting the brain with the body.
Depending on the location of the injury along the spine, the extent of the paralysis can be determined.
If the spine is damaged at the level of the neck, it can cause paralysis from the neck down, whereas if the spine is damaged further down, it can cause paralysis to the legs.
Stem cell transplants may be able to act as a bridge to connect severed nerves, despite the fact that spinal cord injuries are notoriously difficult to treat.
Researchers are looking at ways to prevent nerve damage after an injury.
The body can be pumped with cold saline to make it cooler.
It is thought that cooling can prevent swelling of the spine.
A cross-section of the spine shows gray matter and white matter.
The peripheral nervous system is the connection between the central nervous system and the rest of the body.
The power plant of the nervous system is the CNS.
The signals created by it control the functions of the body.
The wires go to individual houses.
Without those wires, the signals produced by the CNS could not control the body, and the CNS would not be able to receive sensory information from the body either.
There is a postganglionic neuron of the PNS in the autonomic nervous system.
The postganglionic neuron acts on a target organ.
The sympathetic and the parasympathetic systems are hostile to one another.
The "fight or flight" response is activated by the sympathetic system, while the "rest and digest" response is activated by the parasympathetic system.
The sympathetic pathway is responsible for preparing for an emergency while the parasympathetic pathway is responsible for resting the body.
The central nervous system relays information between the internal organs.
The control of these organs is largely by the autonomic nervous system, which can continuously monitor the conditions of these different systems and implement changes as needed.
The sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system have opposing effects on the autonomic nervous system.
One way to remember is to think of the surprise a person feels when they encounter a snake.
An accelerated heart rate and inhibited digestion are some of the functions controlled by the sympathetic nervous system.
These functions help prepare an organisms body for the physical strain needed to escape a potentially dangerous situation or fend off a predator.
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems have different effects.
The postganglionic neurons are activated.
The effects of the sympathetic nervous system are pervasive, as anyone who has ever felt a rush before a big test, speech, or athletic event can attest.
The effect of the original synapse is amplified by one preganglionic neuron, and the release of norepinephrine into the bloodstream is also related to this.
The effects of this release include making it easier for the animal to breathe, increasing heart rate, and moving blood from the skin to the heart, muscles, and brain.
The strength and speed of the sympathetic response helps an organisms avoid danger, and scientists have found evidence that it may also increase LTP--allowing the animal to remember the dangerous situation and avoid it in the future.
One way to remember is to think that the parasympathetic nervous system is in control during a picnic, and both "picnic" and "parasympathetic" start with "p".
The postganglionic neurons are located very close to the target organs.
Some postganglionic neurons release nitric oxide.
After the sympathetic nervous system is activated, the parasympathetic nervous system resets organ function.
Slowing of heart rate, lowered blood pressure, and stimulation of digestion are some of the effects of acetylcholine release.
The sensory-somatic nervous system is made up of cranial and spine nerves.
The sensory information is sent to the central nervous system.
Motor neurons communicate with the central nervous system to make the muscles contract.
Without the sensory-somatic nervous system, an animal wouldn't be able to process information about its environment and wouldn't be able to control its motor movements.
Unlike the autonomic nervous system, which has two connections between the central nervous system and the target organ, sensory and motor neurons only have one connection.
Acetylcholine is the main neurotransmitter.
Some cranial nerves do not send information.
Motor information is transmitted by other cranial nerves.
The opening and closing of the eyelid is controlled by the oculomotor nerve.
There is a mix of sensory and motor fibers in other cranial nerves.
There is a role for the glossopharyngeal nerve in taste and swallowing.