After the first call for militia, it was considered a duty to authorize the commanding general in proper cases according to his discretion, to suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, or in other words to arrest and detain, without resort to the ordinary processes and forms of law, such individuals This authority has been used lightly.
The legality and propriety of what has been done under it are questioned and the attention of the country has been called to the proposition that one who is sworn to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed" should not himself violate them.
Before this matter was acted upon, some consideration was given to the questions of power and propriety.
Almost one third of the States were resisting and failing to execute the laws that were required to be faithfully executed.
It was not believed that the question was presented.
It was thought that no law was broken.
When in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it, the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus may be suspended.
We have a case of rebellion and the public safety requires the suspension of the privilege of the writ which was authorized to be made.
Congress and the Executive are not vested with this power.
The framers of the instrument intended that in every case the danger should run its course until Congress could be called together, but the Constitution is silent as to which, or who, is to exercise the power.
An American president must be both a political head of government and a political head of state.
There are often two roles that conflict.
The rules that were devised to define the functions and powers of the president were both limited and empowering.
Some of the founders wanted a strong leader with far-reaching powers, while others wanted executives who would check each other's power.
The constitutional compromise gives us an executive that has certain powers and independence, yet is checked by congressional and judicial power.
There have been two periods of presidential leadership so far.
The first period was called the traditional presidency and lasted until the 1930s.
In the modern presidency, a more complex relationship has existed between the president and the American citizens, in which presidents branch out to use more informal powers yet remain indebted to public approval for this expansion.
When it comes to their relationship with the American public, presidents face an expectations gap.
The powers granted by the Constitution do not align well with what the president must promise in order to gain office.
Congress and the public are in a constant battle with presidents for furthering their legislative agenda.
In order to fulfill campaign promises, presidents need both congressional cooperation and public approval.
Going public and building coalitions in Congress are some of the strategies used by the chief executive.
The presidential establishment includes the cabinet, the Executive Office of the President, and the White House Office, which has grown considerably since George Washington's presidency.
Managing a large and complex organization presents its own problems for the president.
The president's closest advisers are generally focused on the chief executive's interests, but the variety of other staff and agency heads can make life difficult for the president.
A president's success or failure can be determined by personality differences.
The president's energy level and orientation toward life are classified by Barber's typology.
The ability to communicate with the public, Congress, and the media is influenced by the presidential styles that they create.
Americans get to know the president through the media more than through any policy the president makes.
The president is connected to citizens through public opinion polling.
George Washington's first State of the Union came after he was inaugurated.
"public," "states," "united," and "government" are some of the words used most frequently in this speech.
In the second year of the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln gave a State of the Union address.
Considering Lincoln was unable to save the Union, this speech tries to hold the remnants of the country together with words such as "United," "people," "states," and "emancipation."
The year before he died, Franklin D. Roosevelt gave a State of the Union address.
The president who saw the country through the Great Depression and World War 2 encourages Americans to keep going.
"war," "nation," "service," and "national" are some of the words used in the speech.
The first president of the twentieth century was John F. Kennedy.
His State of the Union addresses new challenges and uses words such as "new," "strength," "free," and "Congress" most often.
The first year of Lyndon B. Johnson's term, he gave a State of the Union address.
His speech seeks to raise the spirits of a nation after Kennedy's assassination and secure Johnson's legacy with words such as "American," "new," " people," and "help."
Ronald Reagan gave a speech after his reelection.
His agenda for his second term is laid out in this speech and he uses words such as "growth" and "American" a lot.
In two thousand two years after 9/11, George W. Bush rallies the country for war in his State of the Union address.
The president talked about the economy, infrastructure, immigration, trade, and national security.
"America," "American," "new," "strong," "year," and "great" are some of the words he uses the most.
A timeline of presidential communication with the nation is included in the visual.