The over- the- mountains route from North Carolina into Kentucky and Tennessee was opened to wagon and stagecoach traffic.
When Ohio became a state, Congress ordered that 5 percent of the money from land sales in the state should be used to build a National Road.
Construction began in the late 18th century.
The Cumberland Road was the first interstate to be financed by the federal government.
The road was open from Cumberland, Maryland, to Wheeling, Virginia, where it crossed the Ohio River.
The National Road was extended 600 miles to Vandalia, Illinois.
The emergence of a market economy was spurred by the National Road, which opened up new markets and reduced transportation costs.
Farmers are selling produce and livestock in distant markets.
The Philadelphia- Lancaster Turnpike opened in 1794 and spurred a movement for paved roads to the northeast.
By 1821, 4,000 miles of turn pikes had been built, and stagecoach and freight companies emerged to move more people and cargo at lower rates.
The turnpike boom was giving way to advances in water transportation by the early 1820s.
Steamboats, flatboats, and canal barges carried people and goods much more cheaply than did horse- drawn wagons.
There were hundreds of flatboats floating goods, farm produce, livestock, and people from Tennessee, Kentucky, Indi ana, Ohio, western Pennsylvania, and other states down the Ohio and Mis sissippi Rivers.
Flatboats went downstream.
They were sold and dismantled to provide lumber for construction.
Much of the nation's cotton, timber, wheat, corn, cattle, and hogs were produced by the commercial agricultural empire created by steamboats.
There were 750 steamboats on American rivers by 1836.
The price of shipping goods plummeted as steamboat use increased.
The city of New Orleans developed even faster.
Since it was acquired from France, its population has grown tenfold.
By 1840, it was perhaps the wealthiest American city, having developed a thriving trade with the Caribbean islands and the new Latin American repub lics that had overthrown Spanish rule.
A lot of steamboats visit New Orleans.
New York City was bled by the amount of trade shipped through the river city dou because of the explosion in cotton production.
steamboats were a risky form of transportation.
Accidents, explosions, and fires were common.
People are on board with pigs and cattle.
Passengers on steam boats shared the same bathroom facilities until the 1850s.
In the first half of the 19th century, steamboats were the fastest and most convenient form of transportation.
The market revolution was sped up by canals.
It wasn't just a boast.
It took eight years to build the Erie Canal, but it drew much of the midwestern trade that had been forced to go to Canada or New Orleans.
Thanks to the Erie Canal, the backwoods vil age of Chicago developed into a bustling city because of its commercial connection via the Great Lakes to New York City and eventually to Europe.
The Erie Canal was a triumph of engineering audacity.
New York from Albany in the east to Buffalo and Lake Erie in the west will rise over 700 feet in elevation.
The canal was built by thousands of labor ers, mostly German and Irish immigrants who were paid less than a dol ar a day to drain swamps, clear forests, build stone bridges and aqueducts.
The "river of gold" brought lumber, grain, flour, and other goods to New York City and unlocked the western settlement.
The cost of moving a ton of freight was reduced from $100 to $5 by the canal.
It paid off its construction costs in seven years.
The Erie Canal had enormous economic and political conse quences, as it tied together the regional economies of the Midwest and the East while further isolating the Deep South.
One of the most productive grain-growing regions in the world was the Genesee Valley in western New York.
Syracuse, Albany, and Buffalo all experienced dramatic growth.
More than 25,000 workers and 4,000 boats were involved in the moving of goods and people along the canal.
The "packet" boats carrying passengers traveled between two and four miles an hour and were painted in bright colors.
The time was lost waiting at one of the eighty-eight locks, where boats would enter one at a time to be raised or lowered to match the changing water level of the canal.
The boat captains would often take their families with them.
Most boatmen were rough.
The Erie Canal and the New York canal system inspired other states to build thousands of miles of waterways.
Canals made it cheaper and faster to transport goods and people.
Real estate prices for the lands surrounding them were boosted and sleepy vil ages were transformed into booming cities.
The canal era was brief.
The railroad emerged in the second quarter of the 19th century as a more efficient and versatile form of transportation.
It became a more desirable form of transportation because of its speed.
The world's first steam- powered railway began operating in England in the year 1824.
The United States was invaded by a railroad- building.
The nation only had three miles of railroad track in 1830.
The railroad erage grew to 30,626 miles over the next twenty years.
The railroad was able to move people and freight faster, farther, and cheaper than other forms of transportation.
Rail travel over canals that froze in winter and dirt roads that became rivers of mud during rainstorms was made easier by the fact that locomotives were able to operate year-round.
Encouraging western settlement and the expansion of commercial agriculture were some of the benefits provided by railroads.
The emergence of three new villages along the rail line was reported by a westerner.
Every town has a public place where people from all walks of life congregate.
Railroads stimulated the national economy by creating a huge demand for iron, wooden crossties, bridges, locomotives, freight cars, and other equipment.
Railroads became the nation's largest employers.
Railroads enabled towns and cities not served by canals to compete in the market economy.
Railroads made possible larger industrial and commercial enterprises from coast to coast by transforming what had been a cluster of mostly local markets into an interconnected national marketplace for goods and services.
Railroads were the first "big" businesses, huge corporations employing thousands of people while exercising extraordinary influence over the life of the regions they served.
Railroad mania had negative effects.
Political corruption was often caused by its quick and shady profits.
Railroads often bribe leg islators.
The decline of Native American culture was accelerated by the railroads.
The noise of everyday life was increased by dramati cal y.
The older merchant ships were slower.
Long and lean, with taller masts and larger sails than conventional ships, they cut a colorful figure during their brief but colorful career, which lasted less than two decades.
The clipper boom was caused by the American thirst for Chinese tea.
The fast clipper ships made it possible for Asian tea leaves to reach markets quickly.
The clippers met the urgent demand for goods on the West Coast.
clippers did not have enough space for cargo or passengers.
The steamship replaced the clippers after the Civil War.
Improvements in communications were sparked by innovations in transportation.
Traveling was difficult at the beginning of the 19th century.
It can take days or weeks for news to travel along the Atlantic Seaboard.
Word of George Washington's death did not appear in New York City newspapers until a week later.
The Mr. Smith & Co. Ship Yard is in Manhattan, where shipbuilders are busy shaping timbers to construct a clipper ship.
Mail deliveries improved.
The number of post offices increased from 1790 to 1860.
The cost of newspapers was reduced from 6C/ to a penny each because of the new steam- powered printing presses.
The postal service was slow in the new western states.
Wel's Fargo & Company was formed by Henry Wel and William G. Fargo to address the problem.
Within a few years, Wel's Fargo stagecoaches were full of passengers, mail, and "strongboxes" filled with gold from coast to coast.
The regular twice- a- week mail service between St. Louis and San Francisco was established in 1856 by Wel s Fargo and other express companies.
Mail service was once a month by steamship.
People wanted faster delivery.
The Pony Express was founded in 1860 to deliver mail between Missouri and California.
Riders were able to change horses every ten to fifteen miles thanks to the established 150 relay stations.
Lincoln's inaugural address arrived in California in eight days.
The first telegraph message from Washington, D.C. to Baltimore, Maryland was sent in May 1844.
Most major cities benefited from telegraph lines by the end of the decade.
Railroad operators were helped by the telegraph system to schedule trains more precisely and thus avoid accidents, as a result of allowing people to communicate faster and more easily across long distances.
Steamboats, canals, and railroads connected the western areas of the country with the East, boosted trade, helped open the Far West for settlement, and spurred dramatic growth in the cit ies.
Between 1800 and 1860, a nation of scattered farms, modest local markets, and primi tive roads became an engine of capitalist expansion, urban energy, and global reach.
Both state govern ments and private investors funded the transportation improvements.
After the success of the Erie Canal, the national government gave land grants to western states to support canal and railroad projects.
In 1850, Stephen A. Douglas, a powerful Democratic senator from Illinois, convinced Congress to provide a major land grant to support a north- south rail line connecting Chicago and Mobile, Alabama.
The congressional land grant set in motion a chain of events that led to 20 million acres being covered by other bounties by 1860.
When compared to the land grants that Congress would award transcontinental railroads during the 1860s and after, this would be a small amount.
Federal cavalry troops were sent to help the Indians along the route of the railroads.
The number of potential customers for given products was greatly increased by the concentration of huge numbers of people in cities.
"It is an extraordinary era in which we live," reported DanielWebster in 1847.
Improvements in industrial efficiency and the introduction of new machines led to an increase in productivity.
By 1860, one farmer, miner, or mill worker could produce twice as much wheat, twice as much iron, and four times as much cotton cloth.
Improvements in productivity were made possible by the practical inventiveness of Americans.
Between 1790 and 1812, the Patent Office approved an average of 77 patents a year, but by the 1850s, they approved more than 28,000 new inventions a year.
Dramatic changes were generated by many inventions.
Charles Goodyear patented a process for "vulcanizing" rubber in the 19th century, making it stronger, more elastic, waterproof, and winter- proof.
It was soon being used for everything from shoes and boots to seals and hoses.
Howe patented his sewing machine design.
It was improved upon by the founding of the Singer Sewing Machine Company, which initially produced only industrial sewing machines for use in textile manufacturing but eventually offered machines for home use.
The use of sewing machines made it easier for women to make clothes at home, freeing up more leisure time for them.
The living conditions were improved by technological advances.
The first sewer systems helped rid the streets of waste.
More goods could be produced faster and with less labor, and machines helped industries make parts that could be assembled by unskilled workers.
Machine- made clothes fit better and were less expensive than those sewn by hand; machine- made newspapers and magazines were more plentiful and affordable; and clocks, watches, guns, and plows were more abundant and affordable.
Eli Whitney, a New Englander, visited a plantation on the Georgia coast in the 19th century where he heard about the difficulty of gining cotton.
Cotton cloth was rare and expensive until the 19th century because it took so long to separate the lint from the seeds.
A person working all day could only separate a pound by hand.
Whitney was told that the person who could invent a machine to make gin cotton would become wealthy overnight.
Within a few days, he had come up with a way to remove the seeds from cotton using a roller and nails.
It made America's most profitable crop almost overnight.
It transformed southern agriculture, northern industry, race- based slavery, national politics, and international trade.
The New England mill owners were drawn by Eli Whitney.
The cost of pro from the fiber was due to the widespread use of side and top of the machine.
The mid- nineteenth century saw people wearing cotton clothing that was easier to clean.
America's largest export product was cotton.
British textile mills were processing a billion pounds a year by 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266
The Piedmont region of the Carolinas and Georgia has cotton growing.
After the War of 1812, it migrated to the west-- Tennessee, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas.
Cotton grown throughout the region and shipped down the Mississippi River made New Orleans a bustling port and an active slave market.
Cotton made up more than half of American exports from the mid- 1830s to 1860.
Textile mills in New England, Great Britain, and France spun cotton into thread and fabric after it was Harvested in the South.
The growth of global cotton capitalism was financed by bankers in New York City and London.
Cotton growers believed that only slaves could make their farms and plantations profitable.
The price of slaves went up.
When farmland in Maryland and Virginia lost its fertility after years of relentless tobacco planting, many whites shifted to growing corn and wheat, since the climate was too cold for cotton, and they sold their surplus slaves to work in the new cotton-growing areas in Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louis In 1790, planters in Virginia and Maryland owned 56 percent of the slaves in the United States, but by 1860 they owned only 15 percent.
Cotton made boom times.
Slaves became so valuable that it became a problem to steal them in the south.
More than half of the nation's pop ulation resided west of the mountains.
Farmers from the rocky hil sides of New England and the exhausted soils of Virginia came to the Midwest to work the flat, fertile farmlands.
By 1860, an estimated 30 to 40 percent of Americans born in New England had moved west, first to upstate New York and then to Ohio and the Midwest.
The process of clearing underbrush and felling trees, burning the debris, grubbing out the roots by hand, and using horses and oxen to remove rocks and boul ders followed the old pattern.
The first crop was corn.
Women and children planted seeds in small mounds.
Pumpkin, squash, and bean seeds would be planted around the sprouted corn.
The strong corn stalks provided a pole for the bean vines to climb, the squash and pumpkins plants grew and spread over the ground, and the weeds around the corn stalks were smoth ering.
Corn stalks were stored to provide winter feed for the cattle and hogs, as well as being boiled to make porridge or ground up to make flour and cornmeal, which was baked into a bread called johnnycake.
Increased agricultural productivity was a result of technological advances.
The backbreaking job of tilling the soil was made easier by the development of iron plows.
When needed, the iron plow parts were easy to replace.
John Deere's steel plow could cut through the tough prairie grass in the Midwest and Great Plains.
Massachusetts alone had seventy- three plants making more than 60,000 plows a year by 1845.
The emergence of a national marketplace for goods and services made possible by the transportation revolution was one of the reasons why most were sold to farmers in the western states and territories.
The growth of commercial agriculture was aided by technological improvements.
The process of sowing seed by hand was replaced by mechanical seeders.
The development of a mechanical reaper that was pulled by horses to harvest wheat is significant to the agricultural economy of the Midwest, Old Northwest, and Great Plains.
The scale of commercial agriculture was changed by the reapers.
Two people could cut twelve acres of wheat a day with a McCormick reaper, while a farmer could harvest half an acre with a handheld sickle.
The catalog of the Great Exhibition was held at the Crystal Palace in London.
The transformation of the tough grass on the plains and prairies into fertile farmland was aided by the steel plow and reaping machine.
Other advances altered the economic landscape even more profoundly than technological break throughs.
The revolutionaries of the nineteenth century were the industrialists who financed and built the first factories.
Coal- fired steam engines powered the initial s and factories.
The shift from water to coal as a source of energy started a worldwide industrial era that will end Britain's domination of the global economy.
The invention of the steam engine in 1705 and the improvement of it by James Watt in 1765 were the foundations of Britain's advantage.
Britain did not allow the export of machines or the publication of descriptions of them, as well as the emigration of skilled mechanics.