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27.4 Asexual Reproductive Strategies
The protective methods used to protect the first true leaves of monocot and eudicot are compared.
Plants have asexual methods of reproduction.
Sexual reproduction is the reproduction of offspring from a single parent.
Asexual reproduction is less complicated in plants because they don't need pollination or seed production.
When the parent is well adapted to a particular environment and the production of genetic variations is not required, it can be a good thing.
Plants that are clones are desirable for plant sellers because they know how the plant will grow.
There is a strawberry plant in Figure 27.
New growth can occur in the nodes of stems.
A new shoot system and a new root system can be seen above the node.
Plants with no aboveground stem have a main stem that grows underground.
There are new plants at the root of a rhizome.
A new potato plant can be created if a portion of the swollen tuber is planted with an expanded portion of the rhizome.
The roots can be grown by planting sections of the root.
Most asexual propagation techniques do not allow for the propagation of pathogens.
Clones created from aninfecting parent will also be affected by plant pathogens.
Plants can be maintained in a disease-free status if clones are made in sterile conditions.
Tissue culture is simply plant propagation done in a laboratory.
The totipotency of plant cells is the key to plant tissue culture.
The cells are grown on agar medium in flasks, tubes, or petri dishes.
The medium has auxin, cytokinins, and water.
A callus is a mass of undifferentiated cells.
Plants can be shipped in sterile containers to growers for use in a greenhouse or field.
An undifferentiated mass, called a callus, develops when stem tissue is placed on sterile media.
Organogenesis takes place from the callus.
The callus becomes a plantlet.
After being stored, plantlets can be shipped in sterile containers to be grown into adult plants.
Many fruits and vegetables can be grown using tissue culture.
The banana is a sterile hybrid that can't produce seeds.
Tissue culture is the only way to produce this fruit.
Asparagus is a dioecious plant, and all commercial stalks are male.
The female stalks are not good for eating.
Tissue culture can be used to produce disease-free male asparagus.
Tissue culture is used for plant preservation.
There is a tissue culture lab at the Atlanta Botanical Garden.
Fewer plants are removed from the wild by collectors when the plants are shared with local nurseries.
In order to increase the population in the wild, rare species are replanted in native habitats.
A rare Kentucky ladyslipper orchid is grown in a tissue culture lab and will be replanted into native habitats.
Scientists can avoid over collection of wild plants.
The cells produce the same chemicals as the plant.
Discuss the benefits of asexual reproduction.
Flowering plants have a life cycle.
The flowering plant life cycle can be found in a land existence.
The gametophytes are protected from desiccation by the sporophyte, the pollen grain has a protective wall, and fertilization does not require external water.
The seed has a protective coat and does not grow until the conditions are favorable.
Four haploid microspores can be produced by the anthers' microspore mother cells.
The sperm cells travel to the embryo sac as the pollen tube grows.
Each ovule has a megaspore mother cell which divides into egg cells.
The sperm nucleus and the egg nucleus unite to form a 2n zygote and the polar nucleus of the central cell form a 3n endosperm cell.
The sporophyte embryo is the zygote.
The seed coat becomes the ovule's integuments as the ovule matures.
The fruit is the ovary.
The success of flowering plants on land may be explained by the coevolution of plants with animals.
The increased chance of seed production would have been gained by flowering plants.
More feeding opportunities would have been gained by the pollinators.
Both species became dependent on each other.
The ovule is becoming a seed.
The embryo can be seen after the first several divisions.
The embryo is attached to the ovule by the suspensor.
The embryo becomes first heart-shaped and then torpedo shaped.
The cotyledons often absorb the endosperm.
Simple fruits can be derived from a single ovary.
A peach or an apple are simple fruits.
Peas, nuts, and grains are dry.
Aggregate fruits come from a number of ovaries of a single flower, while multiple fruits come from a number of ovaries of separate flowers.
There are several ways to distribute seeds.
The plumule is a shoot.
The radicle, hypocotyl, and epicotyl are present.
The endosperm, cotyledon, plumule, and radicle can be seen in a corn kernels.
Pick the best answer for the question.
A gamete becomes a gametophyte in plants.
The flower part has ovules.
The mother cells of the megaspore produce pollen grains.
A 3n structure is a pollen grain.
The flowers are colorful.
A seed has a coat.
Fruits help embryo development.
Fruit dispersal can be done by wind.
Asexual reproduction produces seeds.
Plants take advantage of a difference in flower structure.
Cell suspension culture can be used to extract chemicals.
There is a very rare plant that has become extinct.
Some potatoes are grown from true seeds in some parts of the world.
Discuss the pros and cons of growing potatoes from true seeds.
"Endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful" have appeared and will continue to do so, according to Charles Darwin.
This statement can be applied to the evolution of animals.
Dinosaurs are the most well known of the many animals that are extinct today.
The search for food, shelter, and mates under a variety of environmental conditions can explain why the diversity of animals is so great.
The thread of unity that animals have is the result of evolution from a common ancestor.
Animals need a constant supply of food, which is supplied by the autotrophs at the base of the food chain.
The cells of the organisms form tissues and organs with specialized functions.
Animals share a common chemistry and a genetic code that shows how many groups of animals are related.
The characteristics of animals, their origin, and their evolution are the focus of this unit of the text.
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