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21 -- Part 6: Continuity and Change in East Asia
The headquarters of the Ashikaga shoguns were on Muromachi Street in Kyoto, and the refined and elegant style that they promoted is often cal ed Muromachi culture.
Zen Buddhism is a school of Buddhism associated with meditation and mind-to-mind transmission of truth.
Zen monks were able to read and write Chinese, so they assisted the shoguns in handling foreign affairs.
The arts were influenced by Zen ideas of simplicity.
The Silver Pavilion was built by the shogun.
The temple garden has a white sand cone.
The development of the tea ceremony was influenced by Yoshimasa.
The beauty of imperfect objects was celebrated by Aesthetes.
Simple asymmetrical flower arrangements fit into this aesthetic.
Performers convey entertainment in popular forms of theater.
It was turned into high art by an actor and playwright who wrote on the aesthetic theory of No.
No was performed on a bare stage through gestures, stances and dress.
One or two actors wearing brilliant brocade robes would perform.
The actors were accompanied by a chorus and a couple of musicians.
The most meaningful moments came during silence, when the actor's spiritual presence owed the audience a glimpse of the mysterious and inexpressible.
Civil war began in Kyoto in 1467 over succession to the shogunate.
Rivals claim that ants and their followers burned down temples and mansions in order to destroy the city.
War spread tooutlying areas once Kyoto was laid waste.
Merchants hired mercenaries when the shogun couldn't protect the cities.
The Lotus League, a religious sect, created a commoner-run government in the political vacuum.
The League and its temples were attacked and burned by the powerful Buddhist monastery Enryakuji in 1536.
The new lords were not appointed by the court or shogunate and did not send what they needed and promote taxes to other overlords.
Instead of seizing what they needed, they used it to build up irrigation and trade.
The most successful daimyo were self-made men.
Castle building was encouraged by the violence of the period.
The castles had walls made of stones.
There was a lot ofstoried inside the castle.
The keeps were vulnerable to Western-style cannon, which were introduced in the 1570s.
The daimyo lived in the splendid living quarters of many castles.
Oda Nobunaga was the first daimyo to gain power.
A samurai of the lesser daimyo class recruited followers from masterless samurai who had been living by robbery and extortion.
After winning control of his native province in 1559, he immediately set out to extend his power through central Japan.
The military power of the great monasteries was destroyed.
Nagasaki became Japan's largest port after he opened it to foreign commerce and eliminated customs barriers.
Nobunaga was forced to commit suicide during an attempted coup.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi avenged him and continued the drive toward unification of the daimyo-held lands.
Hideyoshi was a peasant's son who rose to power through military talent.
He brought Japan under his control in a short period of time.
Hideyoshi soothed the daimyo as Nobunaga had done with lands and military positions, but he also required them to swear allegiance and obey him down to the smal est particular.
Japan had a single ruler for the first time in over two centuries.
Hideyoshi made sure that future peasants' sons wouldn't be able to follow in his footsteps.
samurai were not allowed to leave their lord's service or switch oc cupations.
Hideyoshi ordered a survey of the entire country to improve tax collection.
Each peasant household was reg istered and tied to the land as a result of his surveys.
Hideyoshi set up a council of regents to govern during the minority of his son's time in Japan.
Tokugawa Ieyasu, Hideyoshi's long-time supporter, ruled vast territories around Edo.
The capital of the shogunate was Edo.
The daimyo of distant places, such as the island of Kyushu, had to make long journeys to and from Edo every year.
His own government.
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