Shulush Homa faced a dilemma, he was called "Red Shoes" by the English.
He received guns and gifts as well as what were the effects of the colonial reforms on chiefs.
His fortunes changed after that.
The English cut off French shipping during the war between England and France.
Faced with followers unhappy over his sudden inability to supply French guns, Red Shoes forged a dangerous new arrangement with the English that led his former allies, the French, to put a price on his head.
The civil war started after his murder.
The French colonial population had suffered a lot by the end of the conflict.
There are a number of themes from the period of Euro pean colonization of the Americas in the story of Red Shoes.
Although the wars, epidemics, and territorial loss associated with European settlement threatened Amerindians, many adapted the new technologies and political possibilities to their own purposes and thrived for a time.
The best that they could achieve was a holding action.
The people of the Old World were going to dominate the people of the New World.
The political and economic demands of Euro pean empires forced the Americas onto the global stage.
New plants, animals, diseases, peoples, and technologies fundamentally altered the natural environment as a result of the influx of Europeans and Africans.
This wasn't a one-way transfer.
The resources of the New World contributed to the changes in the Old.
American staple crops helped fuel a population spurt in Europe, Asia, and Africa while American wealth altered European economic, social, and political relations.
The story of Red Shoes and the Choctaw shows the complexity of colonial society, in which Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans all contributed to the creation of new cultures.
The diversity of American colonial societies varied from place to place, creating a diverse range of cultures.
The colony's mix of native peoples and connections to the slave trade were reflected in the society that arose in the colony.
People living in the Americas began to see themselves as distinct as the colonies matured.
The European invasion and settlement of the Western Hemi diseases opened a long era of biological and technological transfers that altered American envi between the Americas andronments.
The domesticated livestock and major agricultural of the rest of the world can be traced back to the Old World before Columbus's voyage.
European immigrants and African slaves brought diseases to the Americas.
The population changes weakened native peoples' capacity for resistance and accelerated the transfer of plants, animals, and related technologies.
The colonies of Spain, Portugal, England, and France became large areas of cultural and social experimentation.
The people of the New World did not have immunity to diseases from the Old World.
During the epidemics of the early colonial period, death rates among Amerindian peoples were very high.
The lack of reliable estimates of the Amerindian population at the moment of contact has frustrated efforts to measure the deadly impact of these diseases, but scholars agree that Old World diseases had a terrible effect on native peoples.
In the century that followed 1521, the population of central Mexico fell from 13 million to approximately 700,000.
The population of the Maya and Inca regions declined by more than 50 percent.
Brazil's native population fell by more than 50 percent in a century.
Smallpox arrived in the Caribbean in 1518.
In Mexico and Central America, half of the Amerindian population died during the first wave of the disease.
The disease spread to South America with devastating effects.
Measles arrived in the New World in the 1530s and was followed by other diseases.
Two or more diseases hitting at the same time can lead to death.
Between 1520 and 1521 the Cakchiquel of Guatemala was attacked by diseases.
The smell of the dead was great.
Half the people fled to the fields after our fathers and grandfathers died.
The dogs and vultures devoured the corpses.
Tropical regions of the Americas wereHumid by the mid-seventeenth century.
With the African slave trade, the deadliest form of Malaria arrived, killing native populations and afflicting Europeans as well.
The development of English and French colonies in North America led to similar patterns of death and illness.
Epidemics in 1616 and 1617 almost wiped out New England's indigenous groups.
As far as Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes, epidemics followed French fur traders.
As epidemics swept through the indigenous population, the New and the Old Worlds were participating in a vast exchange of plants and animals that altered diet and lifestyles in both regions.
After contact, settlers brought the staple of southern European agriculture to the Americas: wheat, olives, grapes, and garden vegetables.
African and Asian crops include rice, bananas, coconuts, breadfruit, and sugar.
The natives added many foods to their cuisines, like oranges, melons, figs, and sugar, as well as onions, radishes, and salad greens.
The Old World received an abundance of useful plants from the Americas.
An Amerindian woman milks a cow in a painting that suggests how the Columbian Exchange altered native culture.
Animals such as cattle, sheep, pigs, and goats provided food, leather, and wool.
The spread of useful crops resulted in the growth of the world population after 1700, according to many experts.
Beans, squash, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, peanuts, chilies, and chocolate gained widespread acceptance in the Old World.
Plants that provided dyes, medicine, varieties of cotton, and tobacco were provided by the New World.
The impact of European livestock on New World environments was dramatic.
By 1700, herds of wild cattle and horses exceeded 50 million on the vast plains of southern Brazil.
Environmental changes were dramatic where Old World livestock spread most rapidly.
The impact of marauding livestock on Amerindian farmers was noted by many priests and colonial officials.
Animals that grazed close to the ground were a threat to the environment.
The viceroy misrepresented the response of the indigenous peoples to the new animals.
In the past, wild cattle on the plains of South America, northern Mexico, and Texas provided indigenous peoples with abundant supplies of meat and hides.
The Navajo became sheepherders and expert weavers in the present day southwestern United States.
European animals were turned to their own advan tage by Amerindians in the centers of European settlement.
The creation of Spanish and Portuguese empires in America had an effect on the cultures of native peoples that increased the efficiency of technologies.
Old World diseases decimated New World peoples and made them vulnerable to European expansion and changed New World practices.
The horse is responsible for the new plants and animals.
The frontiers of conquest and settlement expanded quickly.
The Spanish Empire in America included most of the islands of the Caribbean and a vast area that stretched from northern Mexico to the plains of the Rio de la Plata region.
Portugal occupied most of the Brazilian coast before the end of the 16th century.
Early settlers from Spain and Portugal wanted to create colonial societies based on their homelands.
They believed society to be a vertical hierarchy of estates, as well as an arrangement of patriarchal family networks.
They established the religious, social, and administrative institutions that were familiar to them.
Indige nous peoples exercised a powerful influence on the development of colonial societies despite the loss of life caused by epidemics.
Marriage or less formal alliances with Spanish settlers were used to protect the traditional privileges and rights of the inka elite families.
They used colonial courts to defend their claims.
In Spanish and Portuguese colonies, indigenous military allies and laborers were crucial to the development of European settlements.
Beneath the surface of Christianity, Amerindian religious beliefs and practices still exist.
A third cultural stream was added by the African slave trade.
The Spanish crown wanted to establish royal authority over both defeated native populations and European settlers, but geography and technology prevented this from happening.
It took a ship more than two hundred days to travel from Spain to Mexico.
The additional months of travel were needed to reach the city.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain, with its capital in Mexico City, included Mexico, the southwest of the United States, Central America, and the islands of the Caribbean.
Spanish South America was governed by the Viceroyalty of Peru, which was founded five years later.
Fiscal misman agement forced the Crown to sell appointments, but until the 17th century most colonial officials were born in Spain.
Local-born members of the colonial elite gained many offices.
Portugal focused its resources on Asia and Africa in the 16th century.
The Portuguese king was forced to appoint a governor-general in 1549 because of mismanagement, but he was slow to create expensive mechanisms of colonial government in the New World.
The first viceroy of Brazil was named in 1720.
The government institutions of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies were more extensive and costly than those established in North America by France and Great Britain.
After 1690, gold mines financed the large and intrusive colonial bureaucracy in Brazil and Spanish America.
Spain and Portugal were the main players in the Western Hemi sphere.
Theviceroyalties were created in the 16th century to defend their colonies against European rivals.
This extension of governmental authority was funded by taxes assessed on colonial products.
The illegitimate son of a Spanish nobleman and a black servant was named Martin de Porres.
He was known for his generosity, his religious visions, and his ability to heal the sick when he was a member of the Dominican Order.
The artist celebrates Martin de Porres's spirituality while representing him doing the type of work presumed to be suitable for a person of mixed descent in this painting.
Capital from the colonies was drained because of the heavy tax burden imposed by the colonial states.
The introduction and transmission of Christian belief as well as European language and culture was done by the Catholic Church in both Spanish America and Brazil.
The church converted Amerindians, ministered to the spiritual needs of European settlers, and promoted intellectual life through the creation of schools and universities.
Spain and Portugal assumed an obligation to convert native populations to Christianity in order to justify their American conquests.
This effort to convert America's native peoples expanded Christianity on a scale similar to its earlier expansion in Europe at the time of Constantine in the fourth century.
Within a few years of the conquest, hundreds of thousands of conversions and baptisms were achieved in New Spain.
The king was told by a Dominican that the Franciscans have taken and occupied three fourths of the country.
The Catholic clergy sought to achieve their evangelical ends by first converting members of the Amerindian elites, in the hope that they could persuade others to follow their example.
When church authorities discovered that many converts were secretly observing old beliefs and rituals, the Franciscan missionaries in Mexico stopped their idealistic efforts to train members of the indigenous elite to become priests.
The trial and punishment of two converted Aztec nobles for heresy in the 1530s and the torture of hundreds of Maya in the 1560s repelled the church hierarchy, ending both the violent persecution of native religious practice and the effort to recruit an Amerindian clergy.
The abuse and exploitation of Spanish settlers was protected by the Catholic clergy.
The first bishop of Chiapas arrived in Hispaniola in 1502 and lived off the forced labor of Amerindi in southern Mexico.
Las Casas was so moved by the deaths of Amerindians that he devoted most of his life to protecting Mexico.
Las Casas was the most important advo people from exploitation for the rest of his life.
Reform legislation that outlawed the enslavement of Amerindians and limited other New Laws of 1542 were his major achievements.
Slow progress and limited success of evangelization led to the appearance of a unique Amerindian Christianity that blended European Christian beliefs with important elements of traditional native cosmology and ritual.
The evolving mixture was seen as the work of the Devil by the Catholic clergy and most European settlers.
The process of cultural borrowing and innovation contributed to a distinct and original Latin American culture.
After the loss of the Amerindian population caused by epidemics and signs of resistance to conversion, the Catholic Church diverted most of its resources from native regions in the countryside to growing colonial cities and towns with large European populations.
The founding of universities and secondary schools was an important outcome of this altered mission.
The church became the richest institution in the Spanish colonies, controlling ranches, plantations, and vineyards as well as serving as the society's bank.
The economic development of Latin America was dominated by the sugar plantations of Brazil and the silver mines of Mexico.
Europe's trade with Asia was funded by the mineral wealth of the New World.
The growth of colonial cities, concentrated scarce investment capital and labor resources, and the development of livestock raising and agriculture in neighboring rural areas were stimulated by the profits produced in these economic centers.
Once established, this dependence on mineral and agricultural exports left an enduring social and economic legacy in Latin America.
Silver mines in the Spanish colonies generated the most wealth and therefore had the greatest economic influence.
In the year 1540s, it was located in Bolivia.
The Spanish colonial economy was dominated by silver until 1680, when Mexican silver production overtook it.
Spanish America was the first place to fire crushed silver Ore.
Spanish America's silver refinery was one of the large alysts to extract silver.
The amalgam est and most heavily capitalized industrial enterprises were separated by washing and heating.
The ingot of silver that was taxed at the mint in the 16th century was almost pure.
The environmental cost of silver production was high.
Water from large mine shafts was carried to the refinery by aqueducts.
Two sets of vertical stamps poisoned the soil because of the unwanted base metals produced in the refining process shown on the right.
There was a need for horses, mules, and oxen to drive machinery and transport the weight of a telephone pole.
Material was sorted by Amerindian laborers, which led to erosion.
Housing the Western Hemisphere is affected by amalgamation.
Mercury is a poison that contaminated the environment and sickened the Amerindian work force, so the use of mercury amalgamation had severe environmental costs.
European settlers in the Americas were forced to find labor from the time of Columbus.
Spanish authorities forced Amerindians to provide labor or goods until the 1540s.
The decline in the Amerindian population was caused by epidemics and mistreatment, which led to reforms such as the New Laws that sought to eliminate them.
New forms of compulsory labor were created by the discovery of silver.
It provided the mining region of Mexico, where epidemics had reduced Amerindian populations, silver miners grant holder with a supply came to rely on wage laborers.
Amerindians were forced to work for two to four months a year under this system.
The mines, farms, or textile factories were obliged.
Many men returned to mines after a year or two, instead of serving every seven years.
Thousands of Amerindians abandoned traditional agriculture and moved to Spanish mines and farms as laborers because they were unwilling to accept mita service and other tax burdens.
The long-term result of these individual decisions was to weaken the Amerindian village life.
African slave labor was used to develop sugar plantations on the Atlantic islands of Madeira, the Azores, the Cape Verdes, and Sao Tome.
They were able to quickly transfer this profitable form of agriculture to Brazil because of the success of these early experiences.
Sugar production expanded rapidly after 1540, and by the 17th century it dominated the Brazilian economy.
The Amerindians were enslaved by the Portuguese sugar planters.
The epidemics that raged across Brazil in the 16th and 17th century claimed the lives of thousands of Amerindian slaves.
The tobacco factory in Mexico City used a mechanical shredder.
Amerindian slaves were an important source of labor and raiding slave businesses in frontier regions into the eighteenth century.
African slaves eventually came to be relied on by sugar planters.
African slaves were more productive and resistant to disease than Amerindian slaves.
The imports of African slaves rose from an average of two thousand per year in the late 16th century to seven thousand per year a century later as the profits from the plantations increased.
Between 1650 and 1750, nearly five African slaves arrived in Brazil for every immigrant from Europe.
The European money supply was increased by American silver.
The Spanish colony of the Philippines paid for Asian spices, silks, and pottery with large amounts of silver that flowed across the Pacific.
Commercial links with distant agricultural and textile producers were stimulated by the rich mines of Mexico.
The city of Potosi had a population of over 100,000 by 1625.
The rich mining town became the center of a vast regional market that depended on wheat, Argentine livestock, and textiles.
The integration of the economy of the south Atlantic region was aided by the sugar plantations of Brazil.
In exchange for sugar, tobacco, and reexported slaves, Brazil traded hides, livestock, and silver from neighboring Spanish colonies.
Brazil became a conduit for illegal trade between Spanish colonies and Europe because of Portugal's increasing openness to British trade.
The discovery of gold in Brazil at the end of the 17th century promoted regional and international economic integration.
The New ish America, also known as the World, was where most of Spain's nobility came from.
Lesser nobles were well represented, as were Spanish mer describe someone of Euro chants, artisans, miners, priests, and lawyers.
Many criminals, beggars, and prosti pean descent were born in the New World.
The tutes also made their way to the colonies.
The most powerful conquistadors and early settlers wanted to create a class similar to the European nobility.
Their economic position was undermined by their systematic abuse of Amerindian communities.
The officials, the clergy, and the richest merchants were the inheritors of their social position.
Europeans dominated the highest levels of the church and government as well as commerce, while wealthy American-born creoles controlled colonial agriculture and mining.
Tensions between Spaniards and creoles were inevitable, but most elite families included both groups.
The native peoples of the Americas were members of many different cultural and linguistic groups before Europeans arrived.
The effects of conquest and epidemics undermined this rich social and cultural complexity and the relocation of Amerindian peoples to promote conversion or provide labor further eroded ethnic boundaries among native peoples.
The application of the racial label "Indian" by colonial administrators and settlers helped organize the tribute and labor demands imposed on native peoples, but it also registered the cultural costs of colonial rule.
Military defeat and European settlement created new political and economic environments that Amerindian elites struggled to survive in.
Marriage or less formal relations with colonists were sought to protect their positions.