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Chapter 19 -- Part 1: Practice Exam
Four possible answers or sentence completions are followed by each of the following questions or statements.
The one best answer or sentence is what you choose.
Continue with Part B when you are done with Part A.
The graph plots the size of the stomatal aperture as a function of time of day for a typical plant.
Normal conditions, very dry soil, and a low CO2 environment are investigated.
During normal times, stomata are open during the daytime and closed at night.
When it reacts with sugar, the solution turns from brown to blue, but not when it reacts with starch.
A bag made from a permeable material is placed into a beaker with a solution of sugar and starch.
The beaker had Glucose in it.
The bag is not made of starch.
The bag is not made of starch.
The bag is impermeable to IKI.
The following figure shows aMAP signaling cascade.
Substances that cause celldivision are called mitogens.
The figure shows two signaling molecule binding to a transmembrane receptor.
They provide energy to thereceptors that will be used to turn on the relays and cascades.
The signal transduction pathway is disabled by them.
They cause them to start a signal transduction pathway.
They cause them to open a gated ion channel, which allows the passage of specific molecules.
The binding of a relay protein is allowed by the activated receptor proteins.
The relayProtein causes the activation of the GProtein called Ras.
The molecule binding to Ras is from the relay molecule.
A GDP molecule is replaced with a GTP molecule.
Two active proteins are formed by the split of ras.
The active form of the protein is formed when ras bind to a second relay protein.
There is a signaling cascade illustrated.
The signal is more specific because of the cascade.
The signal is amplified by the cascade.
The overall reaction is reduced by the cascade.
The necessary energy is generated by the cascade.
The final step in the pathway is the transcription of an mRNA.
The signaling cascade produces something.
The signaling cascade is needed for transcription.
The signaling cascade causes the mRNA to be activated.
There is a product of the signaling cascade.
Humans have some of the same defects in the Ras protein.
A form of Ras that does not respond to the relay protein is permanently activated by one of thesemutations.
The following figure shows the replicative cycle of a retroviruses such as HIV.
The nucleus and the cytoplasm are where the replication of genes takes place.
The genes of the viruses are much different than the genes of a human.
uracil is used by the RNA viruses.
The proofreading functions of DNA replication are missing.
There is a table that shows the presence orabsence of X, Y, and Z in species I, II, and III.
The number 1 indicates that a character is present, and 0 indicates that it is not.
The species II is related to the species I.
The species II is related to the species III.
The outgroup is related to Species II.
Both species I and III are related by species II.
Most animal cells are small and the same size.
Smaller cells avoid dehydration.
Smaller cells have a lower surface-to-volume ratio.
Smaller cells have a bigger surface-to-volume ratio.
Smaller cells fit together better.
The figure illustrates the evolution ofnine species from a single ancestral species.
There are different areas of the figure.
An animal chamber was made of clear plastic.
The chamber had an opening at one end.
The graduated burrette passed through the stopper.
The movement of a solution inside the burrette could be used to measure gas production or consumption.
Twenty hamsters were put into a chamber.
Half of the chambers were maintained at 10 and 25 degrees.
Oxygen consumption was recorded for each hamster every 30 seconds.
The data is shown in a graph.
The hamsters' respiration rate increases as time goes on.
The weight of hamsters increases the temperature.
The lowest trophic level is used to represent people.
The lowest trophic level is for plants.
A single tree in a forest is the lowest trophic level.
The ecological state of an early successional stage is represented by the pyramid.
Mitochondria and chloroplasts divide independently of the host cell.
Mitochondria and chloroplasts have ribosomes that are very similar to those ofbacteria.
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are not the same as the host cell.
Mitochondria, chloroplasts, andbacteria have a single, circular chromosome.
Mitochondria isolated from cells can be used to carry out respiration if an appropriate substrate is provided and a low temperature is maintained.
This experiment uses isolated mitochondria to investigate respiration.
As electrons are transferred to FAD for its reduction to FADH2, succinate is oxidation to fumarate.
In this experiment, a substitute electron acceptor is provided.
The blue DPIP accepts electrons from the air.
DPIP turns clear after accepting the electrons.
A spectrophotometer can be used to determine the degree of color change.
A higher transmittance percentage shows a solution with less DPIP.
Threevettes are prepared with a buffer.
The contents of a fourth cuvette are the same except that the suspension is returned to a low temperature.
Distilled water was added to bring the contents to the same volume.
Every 10 minutes, transmittance is measured.
The following graph shows the results of the experiment.
The reduction of electron acceptors are only part of the Krebs cycle.
The substrates for the other steps are consumed before they are added.
FAD is the only electron acceptor.
There is only one electron acceptor for the Krebs cycle.
H2O and CO2 can be exchanged between the inside of a plant leaf and the environment.
Between 18 and 30 months, the population size changed due to disease.
Between 18 and 30 months, the population size changed due to competition.
1,200 people make up the carrying capacity of the environment.
The growth rate is zero for 18 and 30 months.
The figure that follows shows the differences between humans, Chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.
The banding patterns in boxes 1 and 4 are nearly identical for all four species, but there are differences in boxes 2 and 3.
The mitochondrion and the vesicle are related.
The lysosome and the vesicle are related.
The contents of the vesicle are shuttled to the nucleus.
The cell's contents are released to be eaten.
There are more than a dozen species of Darwin's finches in the Galapagos Islands.
Each species has an adapted way of getting food.
There are different foods on the mainland than there are on the Galapagos Islands.
South American predator limited the evolution of the mainland finch.
There is no reproductive isolation on the mainland.
The available niches that the Darwin's finches exploited on the Galapagos Islands were already occupied by other species of birds on the mainland.
There are circles and squares in the picture.
The male and female are connected by a horizontal line.
There is a descending vertical line that branches to the offspring.
A circle or square is indicative of the individual's trait.
The water temperature is the same.
The water's pH goes down.
Oligomycin is an antibiotic that blocks the cristae of mitochondria.
Water production would increase.
H+ would increase inside the intermembrane space.
The matrix would increase in H+.
Outside mitochondria, H+ would increase.
During interphase, DNA replication occurs.
Interphase takes longer than all phases combined.
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