There is no basis for the disruption in memory that can be identified when a person cannot remember things.
It is called organic amnesia.
Dissociative identity disorder is when a person has more than one personality.
Someone with DID can have many different personality types.
There are many different ages and genders represented by the different personality.
Two of the personality will be different.
People with DID have a history of sexual abuse.
Psychoanalytic theorists believe that a split in consciousness is the result of a traumatic event that has been thoroughly repressed.
People who have experienced trauma simply don't think about it to be rewarding, thus producing amnesia or DID, according to behaviorists.
The number of DID cases increased dramatically in the last century as cases became more publicized in the United States.
The growing belief of many psychologists that people do not engage in repressive behavior has led many to question if DID is a legitimate psychological disorder.
Someone with a mood disorder can experience extreme or inappropriate emotions.
Major depression, also known as unipolar depression, is the most common mood disorder and is often referred to as the common cold of all psychological disorders.
Most of us don't suffer from major depression.
The symptoms that must be present for such a diagnosis are outlined in the DSM-5.
The length of the episode is a factor.
People who are depressed are unhappy for more than two weeks without a clear reason.
Losing appetite, fatigue, sleep patterns, lack of interest in activities, and feelings of worthlessness are some of the symptoms of depression.
When there is less sunlight, some people experience depression, but only during certain times of the year.
The resulting diagnosis is seasonal affective disorder.
Light therapy is used to treatSAD.
Depression is thought to be the result of anger directed inward, loss during the early psychosexual stages, and an overly punitive superego.
Learning theorists think that the mood disorder brings about some kind of reinforcement such as attention or sympathy.
Depression is caused by negative ideas that people have about themselves, their world, and their futures, according to a cognitive theorist.
Beck calls them the cognitive triad.
One way that cognitive psychologists look at the cause of depression is by looking at how people attribute their experiences.
An explanation of cause is called an Attribution.
If he fails a math test, he may attribute his failure to lack of studying, stupidity, his teacher, or a host of other causes.
Pessimistic styles are more likely to promote depression.
I am bad at math and the class is difficult may be the cause of his failure.
He can attribute his failure to a global or a specific cause.
I will always be bad at math, and I had a bad day, but I may be able to attribute my failure to a stable or unstable cause.
People who make internal, global, and stable attributions for bad events are more likely to be depressed.
When good things happen to them, these same people tend to make external, specific, and unstable attributions.
There are many theories about the cause of depression.
Martin Seligman's idea of learned helplessness is an example of a social cognitive or cognitive-behavioral theory.
Dogs received electric shocks in an experiment conducted by Seligman.
One group of dogs was able to stop the shock by pressing a button with their noses, while the other group had no way to stop the shocks.
In the second phase of the experiment, both groups of dogs were put in a situation in which they could easily escape electric shocks by moving to another part of the experimental chamber.
While the dogs that were able to stop the shock in the first phase of the experiment quickly learned to move to the area where they wouldn't be shocked, the other group of dogs just hunkered down.
The dogs were unable to control their fate in the first phase of the experiment, according to Seligman.
Seligman thinks that humans might suffer from learned helplessness.
Depression can correlate with feelings of learned helplessness.
Learned helplessness is when a person's past experiences make them believe that they can't control aspects of the future that are controllable.
Passivity and depression may result from this belief.
A depressed individual feels unable to improve the situation when undesirable things occur.
A growing body of evidence shows that there is a biological component to the disorders.
Major depression is linked with low levels of a neurotransmitter.
The brains and skin of people who suffer from bipolar disorder have more acetylcholine receptors.
Some researchers think that low levels of norepinephrine are associated with depression.
The chapter "Treatment of Psychological Disorders" shows that both unipolar depression and bipolar disorder respond to therapy.
This suggests that the disorders are caused by biological factors.
Both major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder seem to run in families, a finding that can be interpreted as indicative of a genetic component to their etiology.
Unlike unipolar depression, which is also known as manic depression, bipolar disorder involves both depressed and manic episodes.
All of the symptoms discussed above are involved in the depressed episodes.
People experience manic episodes in a variety of ways.
Some sufferers will feel a heightened sense of power and confidence, while others will feel anxious.
Some people feel an inflated sense of well-being during the manic period, but they usually engage in risky and poorly thought-out behavior that has negative consequences for them.
Some people seem to experience mania without depression.
Schizophrenia is the most disabling of the psychological disorders.
It strikes people as they enter their twenties.
The symptom of schizophrenia is a distorted thinking that can be demonstrated through delusions, hallucinations, disorganized language, and/or unusual affect and motor behavior.
There are beliefs that have no basis in reality.
If I believed that I was going to win a prize for writing this book, I would be delusional.
There is a belief that people are out to get you.
The belief that you enjoy greater power and influence than you do is called a delusion of grandeur.
In the absence of sensory stimulation, hallucinations are perceptions.
If I keep thinking that I see newspaper headlines and autograph seekers outside my window, then I'm going to have a mental breakdown.
They can make up their own words or string together a bunch of nonsense words.
They might laugh when they hear someone has died.
They may have no emotional response at all.
Catatonia is a motor problem that some people suffer from.
They may remain motionless in strange postures for hours at a time, move jerkily and quickly for no apparent reason, or alternate between the two.
They allow their body to be moved into any shape and then hold that new pose.
Schizophrenic symptoms can be positive or negative.
Negative symptoms correspond to deficits such as flat affect or catatonia, whereas positive symptoms correspond to excesses in behavior, thought, or mood.
Several different types of schizophrenia were distinguished by the DSM-IV-TR.
Concerns about the reliability and validity of more specific diagnoses led to the elimination of these subtypes.
People think that schizophrenia and DID are the same thing.
Schizophrenics don't have split personality.
Schism doesn't mean break, but a break from reality and not a break within a person's consciousness.
The dopamine hypothesis is one of the most popular ideas about the cause of schizophrenia.
The dopamine hypothesis states that high levels of dopamine seem to be associated with schizophrenia.
The hallmark of schizophrenia is a decrease in the dopamine levels and a decrease in the thought and behavior.
These drugs can cause negative side effects, such as muscle tremors and stiffness, which are known as tardive dyskinesia.
Parkinson's disease can be treated with a drug called l-dopa that increases dopamine levels.
When l-dopa is given in excess, it causes distorted thought.
There is more evidence that supports a biological basis for schizophrenia.
Enlarged brain ventricles and brain asymmetries are related to schizophrenia.
There seems to be a genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia.
The incidence of the disorder increases for people who are related to schizophrenics, and the closer the relationship, the higher the incidence.
The incidence of schizophrenia in the general population is 1 in 100, but it rises to nearly 1 in 2 among identical twins.
A number of genes have been identified that seem to play a role in predisposing people to schizophrenia.
Positive symptoms tend to be related to dopamine levels, while negative symptoms are linked to genetic factors.
Double blinds are a way of eliminating experimenter bias, but they are not a cause of double bind.
Not all psychologists agree that schizophrenia has a biological basis.
Some people think that certain environments may increase the risk of developing schizophrenia.
The existence of double bind is thought to be a cognitive-behavioral cause.
A person is in a double bind.
Sally would experience a double bind if her parents continued to warn her against acting promiscuously while they gave her revealing, provocative outfits as gifts.
People who live in environments full of conflicting messages may develop distorted ways of thinking due to the impossibility of rationally resolving their experiences.
There is a theory that comes from the diathesis-stress model.
The diathesis-stress model can be applied to many psychological and physical disorders.
Environmental stressors can provide the circumstances under which a biological predisposition for illness can express itself.
This theory helps explain why people with the same genetic makeup don't always suffer from the same disorders.
There are maladaptive ways of behaving that affect people's ability to function.
A personality disorder that you should be familiar with is antisocial personality disorder.
People with personality disorders don't care about other people's feelings.
People need to look out for themselves in a hostile world.
Criminals seem to have a high incidence of personality disorders.
From the names of the disorders, the characteristics of other personality disorders can be deduced.
People with dependent personality disorder rely too much on the help of others, and people with paranoid personality disorder feel like they are being treated unfairly.
Relating to words more difficult to define, histrionic personality disorder is when you see yourself as the center of the universe, and narcissistic personality disorder is when you see yourself as self-love.
A personality disorder is a more minor form of disorder than the others we have discussed.
People with paranoid personality disorder will not experience the distortion of thought and delusions that some other people do.
People with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder are not debilitated to the same extent as someone with obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Your vocabulary can help you figure out what psychological terms mean, but sometimes it can be misleading.
Many students wrongly assume that people with personality disorders are unfriendly.
People with a personality disorder often act in ways that bring pain to others.
A wide variety of disorders are described in the DSM.
There are some additional problems that will be briefly discussed in this chapter.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is when someone feels the need to engage in a particular action because of persistent, unwanted thoughts.
A man may be plagued with constant worries that his environment is dirty and full of germs.
These thoughts might make him wash his hands and shower frequently, even if he is not able to do much else.
When the person performs the compulsive behavior, the anxiety is reduced.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder used to be classified as an anxiety disorder.
The DSM-5 has created a separate classification for obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders.
Post-traumatic stress disorder is caused by a person's involvement in or observation of an extremely troubling event such as a war or natural disaster.
Post traumatic stress disorder used to be classified as an anxiety disorder, but the DSM-5 moved it to a group of trauma and stressor-related disorders.
Psychosexual disorders are marked by the sexual attraction to an object, person, or activity not usually seen as sexual.
pedophilia, to animals, and to objects, such as shoes, are all related to the attraction to children.
Someone who becomes sexually aroused by watching others engage in some kind of sexual behavior is avoyeur, someone who is aroused by having pain inflicted upon him or her is a masochist, and someone who is aroused by hurting someone else is a sadist.
The incidence of paraphilias is higher in men than in women.
The DSM-5 has a problem with feeding and eating disorders.
Anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and binge-eating disorder are some of the disorders we most often hear about.
The symptoms that lead to a diagnosis of Anorexia nervosa include being at a low weight for one's age and size, an intense fear of fat and food, and a distorted body image.
Anorexia nervosa is a form of self-starvation in girls and young women.
bulimics don't lose as much body weight.
A binge-purge cycle in which sufferers eat large quantities of food and then attempt to purge the food from their bodies by throwing up or using laxatives is called bulimia.
Binge-eating disorder is the most common eating disorder in the United States.
It involves eating a lot of food in a short period of time.
Alcohol and drugs are used in a category of psychological disorders.
The use of such substances doesn't mean one would be classified as having a disorder.
Substance-related and addictive disorders can be caused by the use of substances or behaviors that negatively affect a person's life.
The DSM-5 has a final example of the kinds of disorders.
There are some developmental disorders that deal with deviations from normal social development.
Children with the condition seek less social and emotional contact than other children and are less likely to seek out parental support.
People with the condition tend to be hypersensitive to sensory stimulation and often exhibit intense interest in objects not viewed as interesting by most people.
Difficulties in the development of skills are involved in other developmental disorders.
One example is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
A child may have trouble paying attention.
This disorder is more common in boys.
Critics say that the kind of behavior typical of young boys results in an overdiagnosis of a problem.
The most famous of which may be Alzheimer's disease is discussed in the DSM-5.
Alzheimer's is a form of dementia that causes a decline in cognitive abilities.
There is a diagnosis for both a major and mild form of cognitive disorders in the DSM-5.
The DSM allows psychologists to diagnose their clients.
Diagnostic labels have a tendency to last longer than their usefulness.
David and his associates sought admission to a number of mental hospitals.
The only symptom they reported was hearing voices.
All of them were admitted to the institutions because of their mental illness.
At that time, they stopped reporting unusual symptoms and behaved the way they normally do.
None of the researchers were exposed as fakes, and all of them left the institutions with the diagnosis of schizophrenia in the clear.
The researchers' behavior was seen as a sign of their disorder in the institutions.
The next chapter will discuss treatment methods.
Five suggested answers or completions are followed by each of the questions or incomplete statements.
Pick the one that is the best.
Juan hears voices telling him to kill people.
Linda's neighbors describe her as shy and mild.
She is a devoted wife and mother to her three children.
Linda sometimes dresses up in revealing clothing and goes to bars to find men.
She is loud at times.
She tells everyone that she is Jen.
Linda responds only to the name Sally when she is upset.
Women in the United States have a higher rate of depression than men.
A man is unable to move his arm.
No one has been able to find a reason for his paralysis.