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7.3 Plants Convert Solar Energy -- Part 1
When P and NADP+ return to light reactions, they become ATP and NADPH, so that the production of food can continue.
List the products of photosynthesis.
Examine how the two substances are produced.
The wavelength and energy content of solar energy can be described.
The visible-light range is where most of the radiation reaches the Earth.
Water vapor and carbon dioxide are used to screen out lower-energy wavelengths before they reach the Earth's surface.
Human eyes have cone cells that respond to color wavelengths, and plants have pigments that are stimulated by most of the same wavelength.
The long and short wavelength of radio waves extend from the very short to the very long.
The component colors of visible light are expanded to show it.
The wavelength and energy content of each color varies.
The light is absorbed by the Pigment Molecules.
Most pigments only absorb some of the visible light.
The visible light can be absorbed by the pigments in the chloroplasts.
There are different types of chlorophyll in photosynthetic organisms.
Green light is reflected by the leaves of the plant.
The light can be seen in the violet-blue-green range.
A sample is exposed to different wavelength of light inside an instrument called a spectrophotometer.
The amount of light that passes through a sample can be measured by a spectrophotometer.
The amount of light absorbed at each wavelength is plotted on a graph and the result is a record of the absorption spectrum.
Remember why plants are green when you notice the low absorbance reading.
The absorption spectrum is what this is.
They don't absorb green light.
The leaves of plants are green.
You can see the color that isn't absorbed by the leaf.
The pigment complex is used to gather solar energy.
The light reactions use two photosystems.
The photosystems are named after the order in which they were discovered, not the order in which they occur.
During the light reactions, electrons follow a path that begins with photosystem II.
The reaction center becomes so excited that electrons can escape and move to nearby acceptor molecules.
The formation of an electron transport chain can be traced back to the removal of water from photosystem II.
The electrons that left photosystem I were replaced by the electrons that left photosystem II, which resulted in NADP+ and H+.
Without replacement electrons, PS II would be destroyed and the oxygen in the atmosphere would be lost.
The oxidation of water and the release of oxygen from water can be seen in the picture.
Plants and humans use the oxygen within their mitochondria to make fuel.
As the electrons pass from one carrier to the next, energy is captured and stored in the form of a hydrogen ion.
The Calvin cycle reactions in the stroma use this ATP to reduce carbon dioxide to a carbohydrate.
When the PS I pigment complex absorbs solar energy, electrons leave its reaction center and are captured by electron acceptors.
I pass the electrons from the electron acceptors to the NADP+ molecule.
NADPH is formed when two electrons and an H+ are accepted by each NADP+.
The Calvin cycle reactions in the stroma use this NADPH to reduce carbon dioxide to a carbohydrate.
During the Calvin cycle, more NADPH is required than during the light reactions.
An electron moving down the noncyclic pathway is usually diverted back to an earlier point in the electron transport chain.
The electrons leave the photosystem I reaction center and are taken up by an electron acceptor.
This pathway leads to the production of ATP.
NADPH and ATP are produced by the thylakoids within a granum.
The last electron to pass through a sequence of molecular complexes is the one that becomes NADPH.
A carrier at the beginning of the electron transport chain pumps hydrogen ion from the stroma.
When hydrogen ion flow out of the space into the stroma, the ATP is produced.
PS II, which consists of a pigment complex and electron acceptor molecule, receives electrons from water as it splits.
H+ is pumped from the stroma into the space.
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