ChAPTER 28 -- Part 9: The Emergence of Industrial Society
Cezanne spent little time with friends and family while he was painting.
He said that the landscape becomes a thinking, living being within him.
The Industrial Revolution led to an expansion of the West's power.
New markets were needed because Western nations could pour out more processed goods.
More commercial agriculture was developed in places such as Africa and Latin America due to the need for new raw materials and agricultural products.
The Western led world economy was spurred by the creation of vast ships and communication networks.
The West's military advantage in the world was extended by industrialization.
Western guns could be brought inland as never before by steamships.
The invention of the machine gun gave small Western forces an advantage over the local troops.
European nations competed for new colonies as part of their nationalistic rivalry, business people sought new opportunities for profit, and mis sionaries sought opportunities for conversion.
Europe's empire spread through Africa, southeast Asia, and parts of China and the Middle East before 1860.
Many of the same forces, and also massive European emigration, created or expanded Western settler societies overseas in areas where indigenous populations were decimated by disease.
Some settler societies had large local populations.
During the 19th century, there were two revolutions: Industrial and atlantic, with factory managers and foremen trying to regulate the labor movements launched from western Europe.
The industrial revolution worked against freedom of assembly, with factory own course in Britain, as well as a fundamental economic and tech ers allying with governments to outlaw labor organizations.
Beyond the immediate tensions over authority and liberty, there are huge implications for other aspects of society.
The Atlantic revolu and social revolution that swept across the Atlantic, including the tions, were about nationalism and political structure, while the French Revolution focused on increasing production and expanding many other parts of Europe.
The American wars of independence reflected the new forces of the nation.
Western Europe and The Atlantic revolutions were more limited in time than the United States were, with the exception of the trial revolution in western Europe.
Germany was industrializing until 1900.
In some cases, the two revolutions in the Caribbean and Latin America overlap.
The question has not been explicitly asked which would develop later and more slowly.
The revolutions supported each other in many ways.
The principles of the Atlantic revolutions world, subdued by the economic and military power of indus, could be used to attack structures that were held back industri trial Europe.
The guild system, businessmen and imperialists were undid by several European revolutions, but their restrictions on new technologies impeded factory relationship to the glowing principles of the Atlantic revolutions.
The revolutions could create a more mobile labor force.
Industrializa promoted education, which was useful to the industry.
The tion continues to spread even into the 21st century, along with rise of middle-class political interests, which resulted from several persistent, sometimes agonizing, differences between industrial political revolutions, could encourage economic change.
Other revolutionary principles, derived from the Atlantic revolutions about nationalism or attack early industrialization in the name of greater social jus individual rights, have wide influence as well.
Factory work impact was not uniform during the revolutions of Europe.
By the late 19th century, certain traditional institutions, like ers appealing for the vote and for government assistance against slavery, began to fall apart under harsh working conditions.
The workings of rights against arbitrary authority were the focus of both the Atlantic and industrial revolutions, and more than that would protect the freedom of the press or assembly.
Chapter 29 discussed Africa as a case in point.
Some societies filled with an overwhelming majority of immigrants, mostly of European origin, and also brought in so many institutions and beliefs from Europe that they gained a close link with Western history.
Some of them were part of the West.
Before 1914, the United States was the most important overseas Western nation and the only one to become a major world force.
European influence and ongoing contact was shown by all the settler societies.
They were shaped by contacts with native peoples.
Many historians have seen a pattern of exceptionalism in the United States, in which the nation must be seen in a different way.
The question of how much the settlers expanded the larger circle of Western civilization was shared by many trends.
The results of the age of political revolution influenced most of the older settler societies.
The United States was formed by revolution.
The spread of parliamentary governments and liberal constitutions was aided by Britain's treatment of other settler societies.