On January 10, 1957, King invited about sixty black ministers and lead ers to the church.
They wanted to form an organization to promote civil disobedience as a method of desegregating bus systems.
Unlike the NAACP, which recruited individual members, the SCLC coordinated activities on behalf of a group of organizations.
Only a few African American ministers were willing to join the SCLC for fear of a white backlash, because King pushed for direct action.
SCLC grew into a powerful orga nization as King persisted.
The activists were aware that violence was on the way.
Roy Wilkins, head of the NAACP, said that the Negro citizen is no longer afraid of violence.
The second phase of the civil rights movement began.
In the 1960s, African American activists showed the courage to resist injustice, the power to love everyone, and the strength to endure dis couragement and opposition.
Without the president's support, they did it.
The Soviet threat to Western Europe was the focus of the Truman administration's commitment to contain communism.
The United States must develop a "dynamic" foreign policy in order to roll back communism around the world.
Dulles wanted to "liberate" people under Communist rule.
There are two types of people in the world.
His moral commitment to manage the destiny of the world was made unrealistic by the realities of Soviet and Communist Chinese power.
In Korea, President Eisenhower faced three choices: increase the war effort, continue the military stalemate, or pursue a negotiated settlement.
Eisenhower had to convince John Foster Dulles that negotiations were necessary.
In April 1953, Eisenhower told Dulles that he was not willing to prolong the mil itary effort, but he was comfortable using the threat of nuclear weapons to reach a settlement.
The aerial bombard ment of North Korea was intensified in May by Eisenhower.
If a truce were not forthcoming, he would use nuclear weapons.
The cease- fifre agreement was signed on July 26, 1953.
China's rising military losses in the conflict, as well as the spirit of uncertainty felt by the Soviet Communists, are some of the factors that brought about the armistice.
The Korean War ushered in the era of jet fifghters, as helicopters were used in combat.
The United States became the world's police officer by convincing American political and military leaders that communism was a global threat.
Within a few years, the United States would create scores of permanent military bases around the world and organize a national security apparatus in Washington to manage its new responsibilities.
Secretary of State Dulles was the son of a Presbyterian minister.
He believed that the United States was born with a mission to defeat communism.
Dulles and Eisenhower believed that communism did nothing to free people from oppression.
He argued that America should work to liberate the captive peoples of Eastern Europe and China.
Dulles was dismissed as lunacy by State Department analyst George F. Kennan.
He said that the liberation doctrine wouldn't involve military force.
He didn't do anything to temper Dulles's rhetoric or praise his secretary of state's moral fervor.
The Soviet Union had more soldiers than the United States, so Dulles and Eisenhower knew they couldn't win a ground war.
The administration couldn't afford to maintain the levels of military expenditures required during the Korean War.
Massive retaliation had major weaknesses.
The United States and Soviet Union had developed hydrogen bombs that were 750 times more powerful than the atomic bombs dropped on Japan.
A single hydrogen bomb would have a devastating global impact, yet war plan ners imagined using hundreds of them.
The anti- colonial independence movements unleashed by the Second World War led to nationalist groups around the globe revolting against British and French rule.
Iran's parliament took control of the nation's oil industry in 1951.
In the Fifties, America cut diplomatic ties with Great Britain and insisted that Iran, not Britain, should own Iranian oil.
Iran was on the verge of falling under Communist control according to Dulles.
Mossadegh was ousted by the CIA and the British intelligence service, MI6.
Mossadegh was convicted of high treason after the CIA bribed the Iranian army to arrest him.
The Secretary of State pushed America to support the Pahlavis.
The diplomatic leverage would not be forgotten if war were to be used to create Iranians.
The shah was put in power by Americans.
The success of the CIA- engineered coup gave Eisenhower more power to undermine friendly government regimes even if it meant aligning with corrupt dictatorships.
Dulles persuaded Eisenhower to approve a CIA operation to organize a secret army.
On June 18, 1954, aided by CIA- piloted warplanes, 150 paid "liberators" forced Arbenz Guzman into exile in Mexico.
The United States installed a new ruler in the country.
In order to prevent elected governments from joining the Soviet bloc, the CIA subverted them and created resentments in the Middle East and Central America that would haunt the United States.
The United States became involved in Southeast Asia during the 1950s.
The 19th century created by French imperialists was called Indochina.
The League for the Independence of Vietnam, led by Ho Chi Minh, waged a guerilla war against the Japanese during the Second World War.
"Uncle Ho" had a single goal for his country and that was independence.
At the end of the war against Japan, part of northern Vietnam was controlled by the Viet Minh.
On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the creation of a Republic of Vietnam.
They maintain their independence despite a ruthless leader.
He cultivated a public image of himself as Uncle Ho, a man who was gentle and humble.
The French regained control of the cities after the Viet Minh took control of the countryside.
The French would give in if Ho predicted more losses.
After the Korean War ended, the United States continued to fight for French control of Vietnam.
The cost of the French military effort was paid by the Eisenhower administration by the end of 1953.
Their plan was to lure the guerril into the open and then overwhelm them with superior power.
The French assumed that the forested area was difficult to navigate.
They have a strategy.
Slowly, more than 50,000 Viet Minh fifghters took up positions on the ridges overlooking the French base.
They laboriously dug trenches and tunnels.
The French were surrounded by March 1954.
French captives were taken to a POW camp in Dien Bien Phu on May 7, 1954.
The United States was urged by the French government to relieve the pressure on Dien Bien Phu.
The National Security Council urged President Eisenhower to use atomic bombs to help the French.
Unless the British joined the effort, the president opposed U.S. intervention.
The last French resistance was overwhelmed by the Viet Minh fifghters on May 7, 1954.
The end of French rule in Asia was signaled by the catastrophic defeat.
Vietnam was divided at the 17th parallel of latitude after America gave Laos and Cambodia their independence.
The French were left south of the line until nationwide elections in 1956, when the Communists took control of the North.
Thousands of people were executed by Ho Chi Minh in North Vietnam.
The new premier in South Vietnam was chosen by the French at American urging, and he was a Catholic nationalist who had opposed both the French and the Viet Minh.
Eisenhower began providing aid to Diem in 1954.
Diem's efforts to eliminate all opposition played into the hands of the Communists.
He predicted that the rest of Southeast Asia would follow if South Vietnam fell to communism.
Communism was assumed to be a global movement by the domino analogy.
Anti- colonial insurgencies resulted from nationalist motives.
The United States had to police the entire world because of the domino anal ogy.
Eisenhower was supported by the public as a new presidential campaign unfolded.
His health was starting to decline.
He had a heart attack in September 1955 that would affect the rest of his presidency.
Eisenhower and Nixon were renominated by the Republicans.
Balanced budgets, reduced government intervention in the economy, and an internationalist foreign policy were endorsed by the party platform.
The Democrats turned to Adlai Stevenson.
During the last week of the presidential campaign, fifghting erupted in the streets of Hungary and Egypt.
The Soviets forced over 200,000 to flee before installing a new puppet government.
The revolution was smothered in just twelve days.
Although he avoided war over Hungary, Eisenhower allowed the Secretary of State to make reckless pledges about "liberating" Eastern Europe.
The Soviets called the administration's bluff in Hungary.
The Hungarian freedom fifghters were led to expect support from the U.S.
Nixon reassured Eisenhower that the Soviets would show the world the ruthlessness of communism.
The crisis in Egypt was handled by President Eisenhower.
The leader of the Arab world was overthrown in 1952 by an Egyptian army officer.
He promised to destroy the new Israeli nation and end British and French rule in the region.
The Soviets wanted to take control of the Suez Canal, a waterway in Egypt that connects the Mediterranean and the Red Sea.
In 1869, the canal was opened as a joint French- Egyptian venture.
The British Empire's "lifeline" to oil in the Middle East and to India and its other Asian colonies was protected by British troops.
The withdrawal of the British forces was provided for in an Anglo- Egyptian treaty.
In 1955, Nasser announced a huge arms deal with the Soviet Union.
The United States offered to help Egypt build a dam on the Nile River.
John Foster Dulles canceled the Aswan Dam offer after increasing trade with the Soviet bloc and recognizing the People's Republic of China.
Unable to retaliate against the United States, Nasser seized control of the French- owned Suez Canal Company and denied Israel- bound ships access through the canal.
This was a declaration of indepen dence from the Egyptians.
Two thirds of Europe's oil came through the canal, but the British and French needed a pretext for military action.
Israel soon gave one.
Israeli, British, and French officials hatched a plan to attack Egypt from the east and west on September 30, 1956.
The British and French would send troops to the canal zone.
Israeli soldiers dropped into Egypt.
The ultimatum was issued by the British and French.
British warplanes began bombing Egyptian airfifelds after Egypt rejected the ultimatum.
The canal zone was invaded by British and French soldiers.
The international ships were sunk in the Suez Canal.
The canal was taken control of by the French and Anglo- French.
The three nations attacked Egypt without telling the American government.
He decided to stop the inva sion because he believed the Egyptians had the right to control the canal.
Eisenhower demanded that the British and French withdraw and that the Israelis leave the Sinai Peninsula.
The three countries that were in the conflict grudgingly complied on November 7.
The process of independence among its remaining colonies was accelerated by the resignation of the Prime Minister in Great Britain.
The British government realized the risk of acting independently of the United States.
Eisenhower predicted that Egypt would operate the canal in a professional way.
Voters gave Eisenhower a bigger victory than they did in 1952.
Eisenhower won all but seven states in the electoral vote.
His party did not have a majority in either house after his victory.
Americans panicked because they thought that if the Sovi ets could put a satellite in space, they could also blow up a rocket with a nuclear warhead on the West Coast.
WWN64 Figure M28_3 Th First pr e S oof oviet success in space also dealt a blow to the prestige of American science and technology and changed the military balance of power.
Democrats said that the Soviets had "humiliated" the United States and opened a congressional investigation to assess the new threat.
The United States increased defense spending due to mania.
Congress created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to coordinate research and development related to outer space.
The United States was supposed to replace Great Britain and France as the guarantor of Western interests in the Middle East.
The Eisenhower Doc trine was approved by Congress in 1959 and promised to extend economic and military aid to Arab nations if necessary to assist them against Communism.
Eisenhower sent 5,000 marines into the country after Lebanon appealed for help.
After the situation had calmed, the U.S. forces withdrew.
After the Second World War, West Berlin became an Oasis of Western democracy and prosperity, while East Berlin was administered by the Soviet Union.
West Berlin was an alternative to life in the city.
Thousands of East Germans escaped to West Berlin each year.
Khrushchev threatened to give East Germany control of East Berlin and of the air lanes into West Berlin.
Western authorities would have to deal with the Soviet- controlled East German government or face another blockade of the city.
Eisenhower told Khrushchev that he would hit the Russians with every weapon in the American arsenal.
Eisenhower wanted a settlement at the same time.
The May 27 deadline passed almost unnoticed because of the negotiations.
In 1959 Khrushchev and Eisenhower agreed to a summit meeting.
On Sunday morning, May 1, 1960, a Soviet rocket brought down a U.S. spy plane over the Soviet Union.
Khrushchev was embarrassed by the ability of U.S. spy planes to enter Soviet air space.
The plane was shot down by the Soviets.
The U.S. government lied about the incident because they didn't realize that the Soviets had captured the pilot.
On May 11, Eisenhower took personal responsibility for the program and explained that it was important to national security.
The premier addresses journalists at a press conference in 1959 and the Soviet utes walk out.
Powers was exchanged for a Soviet spy.
Cuba's Communist regime came to power on January 1, 1959 after two years of warfare against the U.S.-supported dictator, Fulgencio Batista.
Castro embraced Soviet support as he imprisoned hundreds of opponents, staged public executions, and was 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217
The Soviets warned against American intervention in Cuba.
One of Eisenhower's last acts as president was to reestablish diplomatic relations with Cuba.
The use of the invasion force to oust Castro would be up to the next president, John F. Kennedy, but he authorized a secret CIA operation to train a force of Cuban refugees to oust Castro.
The nation's worst economic slump since the Great Depression was caused by Congress adding Alaska and Hawaii to the list of states.
Civil rights, defense policy, and corrupt aides compounded the adminstration's troubles.
Castro became Cuba's Communist premier in 1959 after overthrowing the Batista regime.
With time, the opinion of Eisenhower's presidency has improved.
He presided over a prosperous nation.
He displayed good judgement in dealing with crises.
He kept his promise to end the war in Korea, but refused to intervene in Asia in the face of global tensions.
The wars Eisenhower chose to avoid were his greatest decisions.
Not a single American soldier died in combat during his two administrations, something no president has achieved.
He acted with composure, restraint, and intelligence for most of the time.
Eisenhower balanced the budget if he didn't take the lead in addressing social and racial issues.
Inflation remained minimal if he allowed unemployment to be as high as 7 percent.
Adlai Stevenson admitted that the victory of Eisenhower had been good for America.
"I like him too," he1-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-6556
If Eisenhower had invested in the civil rights movement, what would have happened?
It was striking for Eisenhower, a celebrated military leader, to highlight the dangers of a large military-industrial complex exert ing "unwarranted influence" in Congress and the White House.
Eisenhower never promoted warfare as an instrument of foreign policy.
His successors wouldn't be able to keep war at bay.
The postwar period saw high levels of federal spending.
The economy was fueled by consumer demand for homes, cars, and household goods.
Adolescents rebelled through acts of juvenile delinquency and a new form of sexual y provocative music called rock 'n' rol.
Despite record-breaking economic growth, pockets of chronic poverty persisted and people of color did not fare as well as whites did.
In the early 1950s, the NAACP mounted legal challenges to states that refused to desegregate their public schools.
The Civil Rights Act of 1957 was meant to stop discrimination against black voters in the South, but it was rarely enforced.