The federal government abandoned its role in Reconstruction.
Many Republicans lost confidence in President Grant's leadership when he wanted to run for a third term in 1876.
He announced that he would retire in the summer of 1875.
After newspapers revealed that he had secretly promised political favors to railroad executives in exchange for shares of stock in the company, the candidacy of the former Speaker of the House crumbled.
The scandal led to the selection of the favorite son of Ohio.
A former Union general who had been wounded five times during the Civil War, he had served three terms as governor of Ohio.
He was a civil service reformer who wanted to reduce the number of federal jobs.
His main virtue was that he did not offend Radicals or reformers.
He promised to reject a second term for himself and called for reform of the civil service to eliminate cronyism.
The Democratic convention was pleasant.
Samuel J. Tilden was nominated on the second ballot.
The campaign avoided controversial issues.
Democrats highlighted the Republican scandals without strong ideological differences.
Republicans waved "the bloody shirt" and linked the Democrats to civil war and violence in the South.
Robert G. Ingersol was the most celebrated Republican public speaker of the time.
Tilden won the election according to early returns.
Tilden won 184 electoral votes, just 1 short of the total needed for victory, after he outpolled Hayes by almost 300,000 votes.
The election was decided by 19 disputed electoral votes from Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina.
The Democrats needed one of the challenged votes to claim victory.
Democrats used violence to keep black voters away from the polls, while Republicans engaged in election fraud.
The three states were governed by Republicans who appointed the election boards.
The Democrats immediately challenged the results.
There were conflicting vote counts in all three states.
There was no solution for weeks.
Congress appointed an electoral commission to settle the dispute.
On March 1, 1877, the com mission voted in favor of Hayes.
On the next day, the House ofRepresenta tives voted to make Hayes president.
Tilden didn't protest the decision.
Key southern Democrats defected to the Republicans in order to win the election in the Era of Reconstruction 1865-1877.
The Republicans promised that if they named him presi dent, he would remove the last federal troops from the South.
After July, the House of Representatives refused to fund federal troops in the South, and the Republican governments withdrew their soldiers from Louisiana and South Carolina.
In the con gressional elections of 1878, he admitted that the balloting in southern states was corrupted by violence of the most atrocious character, but he was not about to send federal troops again.
Federal protection of black civil rights in the South fell over the next thirty years.
New white state governments abolished the "carpetbaggers, scalawags, and blacks" and cut spending.
The Civil War had nothing to do with slavery and everything to do with a noble defense of states' rights and the southern homeland against the Republican party.
The loyal and faithful slaves in the South were "contented with their lot" in 1861 according to Jefferson Davis.
Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson were idealized in the Lost Cause myth as chivalrous pil ars of southern virtue who fought bravely and ethical against far larger.
Scores of monuments and memorial were erected to honor Confederate leaders.
The col apse of Congressional Reconstruction had tragic conse quences, as the white South aggressively renewed traditional patterns of discrimination against African Americans.
Congressional Reconstruction left an enduring legacy with the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments.
Reconstruction's experiment in interracial democracy created the essential constitutional foundation for future advances in the quest for equality and civil rights for women and other minority groups, if it failed to provide true social equality or substantial economic opportunities for African Americans.
The states were responsible for citizens' rights until the Reconstruction era.
Thanks to the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, blacks gained equal rights, and the federal government assumed responsibility for ensuring that states treated blacks equally.
After a hundred years, the cause of civil rights would once again be accepted by the federal government.
Andrew Johnson, Lincoln's successor, wanted a lighter plan for Reconstruction.
The Military Reconstruction Act used federal troops to enforce voting and civil rights for African Americans.
Many African Americans served as elected officials.
Along with white southern Republicans and northern carpetbaggers, they worked to rebuild the southern economy.
The Four teenth and Fifteenth Amendments created the essential foundation for future advances in civil rights, but the Southern state governments quickly renewed long- standing patterns of discrimination against African Americans.
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The defeat of the Confederacy in 1865 restored the Union and helped accelerate America's transformation into an agricultural empire and an industrial powerhouse.
The regional conflicts of the prewar era were brought to an end by a stronger sense of nationalism.
During and after the Civil War, the Republican- led Congress pushed through legislation to promote industrial and commercial development and western expansion at the same time that it was "reconstructing" the former Confederate states.
Food production and exports went up.
Railroads created a web of economic development.
The relocation of Native Americans onto reservations and the reckless exploitation of the conti nent's natural resources tarnished the progress.
Huge corporations began to dominate the economy due to innovations in mass production and mass marketing.
The process of industrial development controls us all because we are all in it.
The late 19th century American life was powered by the mushrooming industrial cities.
Hamlin Garland declared that this is the age of cities.
Rural life was affected by the transition from an economy made up of mostly small local and regional businesses to one dominated by large- scale national and international corporations.
The "simple, pastoral" America was reported to be gone as early as 1869.
The Jeffersonian ideal of America as a nation of small farms had been displaced by the rush of railroads and business.
During the last quarter of the 19th century, social unrest and political revolts were caused by the new forces of the national mar ketplace and the traditional folkways of small- scale family farming.
During the 1890s, there was a clash between tradition and modernity, sleepy farm vil ages and bustling cities.
The 1896 presidential campaign was transformed by a deep economic depression, political activism by farmers, and violent conflicts between industrial workers and employers.
The Republican candidate, William McKinley, talked about modern urban and industrial values.
The nominee of the Democratic and the Populist parties was an eloquent defender of America's rural past.
McKinley's victory was a turning point in American history.
By 1900, the United States had emerged as one of the world's greatest industrial powers, and it would assume a new lead ership role in world affairs.
Steelworkers work at Andrew Carnegie's steel mill in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
The Civil War provided a boost to the northern economy.
The need to supply the Union armies with shoes, boots, uniforms, weapons, supplies, food, wagons, and railroads ushered in an era of unprecedented industrial development.
Large scale businesses were favored by the scope of the war.
The number of manufacturing companies in the United States doubled during the war.
The process of mass- producing mountains of goods for the war effort gave a widened scope to the ideas of leading capitalists.
America experienced rapid growth between the end of the war and 1900.
There were no industrial corporations listed on the New York Stock Exchange after the Civil War ended.
Hundreds of thousands of managers, clerks, and workers were employed by dozens of them by 1900.
The class structure and lives of women changed in the late 19th century.
Assess the efforts of workers to organize unions.
By 1900, American industries and corporate farms dominated global markets in steel, oil, wheat, and cotton.
The most visible of the social changes was the sudden prosperity of large industrial cities such as Pittsburgh, Chicago, and Cleveland.
Millions of young adults left farms and vil ages to work in factories, mines, and mil s and to enjoy city life.
Women left the "cult of domesticity" and entered the urban- industrial workplace as clerks, typists, secretaries, teachers, nurses, and seamstresses.
Most laborers remained in low- wage jobs while a few made fortunes.
New technologies and business practices outpaced the outdated legal system to craft new laws and fashion ethical norms to govern the rapidly changing economy.
Business owners took advantage of the lawless environment to build fortunes, destroy reputations, exploit workers and the environment.
Out of the scramble for profits came prosperity and a rising standard of living that became the envy of the world.
Along with great wealth came great poverty.
People with different talents, opportunities, and resources get different rewards from their labors in a capitalist economy.
Equal political rights and economic status can cause social instability in a capitalist democracy.
The formation of labor unions and farm associations was spurred by the influ ence exercised by the business tycoons.
Tensions erupted into violent clashes that required government intervention.
The nation's industrial development was accelerated by several factors during the second half of the 19th century.
The expansion of transportation systems, including canals, steamboats, railroads, and the development of instantaneous communication networks, were important.
These innovations combined to create a national marketplace for the sale and distribution of goods and services.
More than 15 million people arrived in the United States between 1865 and 1900.
The transition to an urban- industrial society was driven by a new generation of outsized business leaders.
Admirers called them captains of industry, while critics called them robber barons because of their control of money and commerce.
The post- Civil War tycoons were determined to eat large enterprises.
They were examples of free enterprise and self reliance who believed that what was good for their businesses was good for the country.
Hated, feared, envied, or admired, they were the catalysts for a new America of cities and factories.
The goal of industrial capitalism was bigness.
Entrepreneurs took advantage of new money- making opportunities, technologies, and politi cal lobbying to build corporations that dominated industries such as oil refining, steel, sugar, and meatpacking.
America's economic trademark was ingenuity.
The promoter of Big Business cut costs, bought politicians, and suppressed competition.
The agricultural economy was shifting to a large scale industrial model at the same time that the manufacturing sector was experiencing rapid growth.
The "bonanza farms" spread across the West.
They were run like factories by college educated managers who would hire hundreds of migrant workers to harvest crops, usually wheat or corn, for eastern or foreign markets.
The industrial sector was stimulated by the farm sector.
The productivity of bonanza farms using the latest machinery and scientific techniques became famous in the West.
One bonanza farm in North Dakota had a single field of wheat.
wheat was exported around the world during the Industrial Era.
A farm in South Dakota employed more than 1,000 migrant workers.
The wave of the future was agri businesses.
The United States became the world's leading agricultural producer by 1870.
With the growth of the commercial cattle industry, the process of slaughtering, packing, and shipping cattle, hogs, and sheep evolved into a major industry in Chicago.
America has nurtured a culture of invention.
After the Civil War, Lincoln praised the nation's peculiar talent for "discoveries and inventions."
Improvements in efficiency, productivity, and the size of industrial enterprises were spurred by the work of inventors, scientists, research laboratories, and business owners.
Businesses were able to turn out more products at a lower cost because of these innovations.
Industrial productivity increased after the Civil War.
Many of the new patents issued to women and African Americans in the 1890s were issued by the U.S. Patent Office.
Business executives watch Alexander Graham Bell at the ments on household goods.
The importance of the telephone was unparalleled.
Alexander Graham Bell began experimenting with the idea of a "speaking telegraph," or talking through wires.
The American Telephone and Telegraph Company was founded in 1876 after Bell patented his device.
The long- distance telephone lines were perfect five years later.
More than 300,000 telephones were used by 1895.
Bel's patent was the most valuable one ever issued.
The nature of work was changed by inventions.
Business offices were transformed by typewriters.
Women served as clerks or secretaries at many offices in the new roles enabled by typewriters.
Women were paid less than men for doing the same job in the Industrial Era because employers assumed that they were not supporting a household.
The fastest growing job category for women was clerical positions.
The introduction of sewing machines for mass production of clothing and linens opened new employment opportunities for women.
Large numbers of mostly young immigrant women worked in sweatshops in the major cities.
Thomas Alva Edison was the most influential American inventor.
His focus was on telegraphy and electricity.
He wanted to be a telegraph operator and built his own set.
He began working for the local railroad when he was twelve.
He ran after the train when he was late.
The conductor lifted him into the train.
Something snapped in his head, and he was nearly blind.
In the middle of the Civil War, in Cincinnati, Louisville and Boston, the solitary Edison became a telegraph operator.
He was able to listen to others and tinker with the equipment thanks to the clicking telegraph key.
Even though he had no formal scientific education, he became a mechan ical genius.
He moved to New York City to be closer to the center of America's financial district, where he developed dozens of new machines, including a "stock market ticker" to report the transactions on Wall Street in real time.
Soon, job offers and what he referred to as "real money" flooded his way.
To become a full- time inventor was a different goal for the man.
He moved to what he called his "science vil age" in New Jersey in 1876.
He improved on the phone.
By the age of thirty, he was the nation's foremost inventor.
Hundreds of new devices and processes were created by Alto, including the storage battery, Dictaphone, mimeograph copier, electric motor, and motion picture camera and projector.
He became a world famous person.
Congress honored him after he was invited to the White House.
Daylight deterred much about how people lived and worked.
The dis tinction between night and day disappeared with the help of the lightbulb.
After dark, the nation used to be illuminated by gas and kerosene lamps.
The electric utility industry was launched in 1882.
The companies that made lightbulbs merged into the General Electric Company.
The lighting system was limited by the use of direct electrical current.
To cover larger distances, an alternat ing current was needed, which could be transmitted at high voltage and then stepped down by transformers.
The first alternating- current electric system was created in 1886 by George Westinghouse, the inventor of the railway air brake.
The battle of the currents was won by the Westinghouse system and the companies had to switch over to AC.
The alternating- current (AC) motor was invented in New York by a twenty- eight year- old Croatian immigrant who had once worked with Thomas Edison.
The power, speed, and efficiency of machinery were increased by the invention of dynamos.
Electricity made it possible for factories to be located anywhere and for them to have a ready supply of energy.
The creation of elevators that enabled the construction of taller buildings was stimulated by the creation of electricity.
Railroads symbolize the impact of innovative technologies on industrial development and the maturation of a truly national economy.
No other form of transportation was more important to the national marketplace than transportation.
He concluded that the railroads provided America with a path to progress, profit, and modernity.
Railroad time and distance were compressed.
They were cheaper and faster to move than any other form of transportation.
Uniform national and international time zones were created due to the railroad network and the use of wristwatches for trains to run on time.
Those that did not die had rail depots.
The stations connected small towns with the outside world.
The most spectacular growth of the railroad came after the Civil War.
The national rail network grew from about 35,000 miles of track in 1865 to more than 200,000 miles by 1897.
There was a network of telegraph poles and wires around the track.
Communication and transportation combined to create a national economy.
Railroads were America's first truly big business, the first beneficiary of the great financial market known as Wall Street in New York City, the first industry to have operations in several states, and the first to develop a large- scale management bureaucracy.
America's transition to an urban- industrial economy was spurred by the railroad boom.
From the 1860s to the 1960s, most people entered and left a city through the railroad stations.
Railroads opened the West to economic development, allowed federal troops to suppress Indian resistance, ferried millions of immigrants from New York City and other East Coast ports, and helped transform commercial agriculture into a major international industry.
Railroads were expensive.
Railroads, railcars, and the construction of track, trestles, and bridges required enormous investments.
The railroad industry was the first to sell shares of stock to investors.
Railroad purchases of iron and steel, coal, timber, leather, and glass stimulated other industries.
Railroad companies were the nation's largest employers.
Railroad developers cared more about making money than safety.
Thousands of laborers were killed or injured because of dangerous working conditions.
The economy could not support as many railroads as they were built.
Railroads were bad or even criminal and went bankrupt.
The people that succeeded broke the rules.
Railroad lobbyists helped to corrupt state and federal legislators by buying their votes with cash or stock.
The United States was supposed to be the first nation to build a railroad across a continent.
Their construction required heroic feats by the surveyors, engineers, and laborers who laid the rails, built the bridges, and carved out the tunnels through the mountains.
The first transcontinental railroads were more expensive to build than the shorter "trunk" lines in the East.
Construction workers and supplies had to be hauled long distances because the western routes passed through vast stretches of unpopulated plains and deserts.
Locomotive motives, railcars, rails, ties, spikes, and much more were often transported by ships from the East Coast to San Francisco and then by train to the remote construction sites.
Managing a moving army was what the construction process was like.
The herds of cattle, horses, mules, and oxen had to be fed.
"Hell on Wheels" was built to house the crews and moved with them as the tracks progressed.
The camps had tents for brothels, saloons, gambling, and prostitution.
Nightlife was loud.
Soldiers, women, teamsters, and railroad men are dancing, singing, or gambling according to a British reporter.
Men here would kill a fellow- creature for five dol lars.
The construction of a transcontinental line was delayed because of disagreements between northern and southern congressmen.
Republicans in Congress voted to pass the Pacific Railway Act in 1862, despite the departure of southern congressmen for the Confederacy in 1861.
The Union Pacific Railroad and the Central Pacific Railroad were authorized to build along a north- central route.
Most of the work was done after 1865 when the war ended.
feats of daring, engineer ing, and construction are required to build a railroad.
Laying rail around and through the mountains required extensive use of explosives.
Over the course of construction, many workers were killed or injured due to the harsh weather.
At times, thousands of men worked for each railroad company as they raced to complete their tasks.
Congress would give more money to the company that laid the most tracks in the shortest time.
Both companies cut corners because of the competition.
One of the owners confessed that his goal was to build the cheapest road that he could.
If bridges are damaged by freight trains, they could be fixed later.
Many of the UP crews were composed of young, unmarried former Civil War soldiers, both Union and Confederate, along with ex- slaves and Irish and German immigrants.
Young Chinese workers were lured to America by the gold rush or railroad jobs.
Most of the "coolie" laborers were single men who wanted to return to China.
The transcontinental Central Pacific Railroad track was built using a large amount of Chinese laborers.
Their temporary status and dreams of a good life made them more willing than American laborers to endure the low pay, dangerous working conditions, and intense racial prejudice.
Chinese laborers were able to work together to accomplish difficult tasks.
They are quiet, peaceable, tractable, free from drunkenness, and they are as productive as the day is long.
A series of tasks were involved in building the rail lines.
The routes and grade changes were mapped by the surveyors.
The bridges, tunnels, and snowsheds were designed by engineers.
The rail beds were prepar ed by tree cutter and graders.
Thirty- foot- long iron rails weighing 560 pounds were laid atop the wooden cross ties.
The rails were attached to the ties in the Industrial Era.
Workers shoveled gravel between the ties.
Terrible weather, late deliveries of key items, accidents, epidemics, and Indian attacks interrupted this huge undertaking.
Two men drowned in the river yesterday.
They were attacked by Indians at about sunrise and succeeded in shooting one.