They had been fighting for a long time for what was Hellenism.
Along the and South Asia promote political changes way they had defeated massive armies, including those armed with fear in those areas, and what were those war elephants?
The army was like no other.
The "Silk Road" was supposed to be used to build a new world, however, it was not developed and how important these were were to the soldiers.
They loved their leader, but they thought he had gone too far.
Alexander's advance into South Asia was halted by some who cut off a river.
350 bce to their supreme commander.
Alexander's response was the establishment of culturally Greek-oriented communities.
His troops were not going to desert the region.
For at least five centuries after Alexander's death, he evoked the amazing military victories and historic lived rule of the Hellenistic culture, which established his personal west all the way to the Ganges in the east.
It was a new phenomenon.
He was thirty-two years old at the time.
He set in motion political, cultural, and eco as well as a uniform culture stressing the common identity of nomic forces that would transform Afro-Eurasia.
Two broad cultural movements came about to link diverse populations across wide expanses of the Afro-Eurasian Afro-E.
They could have access to the world.
The central subject of this chapter is how it diffuses well beyond its homeland.
The influence of Greece's empire and broad trade routes created circuits through the Mediterranean to parts of sub-Saharan Africa.
The foundations for central and South Asia were laid through the conquests of Iran and Imperial Africa.
It was heard in China.
Hellenism was like a widespread cultural system that was more enduring than "Americanization" in the modern world.
Alexander's armies forged only a fleet of attractive elements of one culture--its language, its music, its political regime, and all modes of dress and entertainment--and made these parts of the way from the Greek homeland to northern India.
The movement for state systems and institutional stability did not eradicate local cultures, but they did cause profound shifts in the systems.
Governments under his rule are not plundering.
Many of the world's regions are from China.
African cities became more integrated because of the reduced fear of attack.
The passageways that had carried small bands of traders were replaced by major commercial arteries.
The Silk Road was the primary commercial Age religion.
The Mauryan dynasty network linked East Asia and the Mediterranean world.
These of South Asia were influenced by Alexander's victories and were able to extend trade routes over 5,000 miles and spread the religion of the Buddha throughout the region.
We can't understand Alexander and the Hellenistic because they created the political latticework and institutions cultural movement or the spread of Buddhism without through which cultural influences grew and extended like vines acknowledging the important ways in which distinct parts of spreading into regions far from their roots.
Alexander's conquests did not happen on their own, but through the work of long-distance trade and cross-cultural exchanges.
Alexander's bloody campaigns made for great drama.
After the conquests of Alexander and Mauryan kings, their cultural effects were more world looked very different in the realm their armies had dramatic.
His armies changed Afro-Eurasia.
Alexander the Great began a drive for empire into Asia and North Africa that eventually spread a Hellenistic culture throughout the conquered lands.
Alexander's novel use of new kinds of armed forces in a series of lightning attacks on the Persian Empire further undermined the barriers that separated the Mediterranean world from the rest of Southwest Asia.
The Mediterranean was transformed into a unified world after his conquests.
The king of Persia was found as a wall decoration in a house in southern Italy.
Alexander is the bareheaded figure to the left, while Darius is the figure to the right.
Two types of warfare are represented by the men.
Alexander came from the frontier state of Macedonia to the north of Greece.
The result of this rampage was not an empire among Greek city-states.
The Macedonians continued a process that the Persians had already set in state.
Philip broke barriers that separated peoples on the quer neighboring states after he unified Macedonia.
Macedonia had gold on the eastern and western ends of Afro-Eurasia.
The conqueror saw mines that could finance his new military technology and a new universal figure, a bridge connecting distant ciplined, full-time army.
The costs of armored infantry cultures.
He showed this vision in his choice of the daughter of a chief from Bactria, who was supported not just from the mines' sub as a wife, but also with large-scale shock cav.
Philip destroyed the Greek city-states to the south, money-based economies, by the early Mesopotamia to the commodities of the Mediterranean, to 330s bce.
After Philip's assassination, his son Alexander gold coins to pay for their invasions, and to cultural ideas asso used this new military machine in a series of daring attacks on the Greek city-states.
Alexander founded dozens of the Persian Empire's new cities named after him, the most famous of which was the king of the time, Darius III.
Alexander was one of the many conquerors who took much of his success to a readiness to take risks.
He took them by surprise when he outflanked his immense palaces, especially at Persepolis, in his initial for the accumulated wealth that the Persian kings stored in their ays into Southwest Asia.
The post-Columbian redistribution of wealth, which extended from exploitation of the Americas, led to a widespread economic expansion in the Mediterranean and Afghanistan.
The makeup of the army that would confront Alexander in 331 bce was described in the following passage.
Athens-Arrian mentions the various ethnic groups of the Persian Empire that contributed troops in describing the size of the army.
Contingents came from lands as far flung as Bactria, Scythia, Armenia, and Caria, as well as lands close to them.
The war chariots with blades mounted on were reinforced with Sogdians and Bactri the Mede.
The Red Sea was commanded by Oronphants, the Indians who came from Bactria, all under the command.
The satrap of Bessus was on the side of the river.
Oxathres was the son of Aboultius.
They owed Siracenioi and Carians and were commanded no loyalty to Bessus.
How many ethnic groups have bowmen?
Barsaentes, the Cappadocians, and Ariaces commanded the command.
The satrap of Arachosia is told by the many ethnic loyalties of the Syr.
The opotamia of the Parthians, the Hyrcanians, and Tapeiroi were commanded by the same man.
The total number of men in the army were able to defeat the large and taphernes.
It was translated by Brent Shaw.
One effect of powerful families controlling whole kingdoms overconsumption of alcohol and other excesses was that a few women could now hold great power, an unthink his larger-than-life personality and reflected the war culture of the city-states.
His death in 323 bce brought on Macedonia, Syria, and Egypt--whether independent or as a lapse of the regime he had personally held together.
The con co-regents with their husbands have established new public roles that divide lands into large territories for women.
The generals squabbled for control.
Middle-sized kingdoms emerged in areas between the larger states.
The old city-states of the Mediterranean, such as Athens and Corinth, still thrived, but now they are in a world dominated by larger power blocs.
Larger confederations of previously independent city-states formed on mainland Greece.
Political states coalesced into larger units that displayed a homogeneity unknown in the governments of the earlier city-states.
The wars between the kingdoms of Alexander's successors were more complex than ever before, and competition in war remained an unchanging fact of life.
The new kings had a constant state of war because of their relative parity in strength.
Every large state had access to the same advanced military technology, and rulers went into the marketplace and acquired the highly trained soldiers, mercenaries, generals, and military advisers required to run their armies.
After the battles that killed her.
The Mauryan Empire game of watching one another and balancing threats with alli was the order of the great powers.
Carthaginians are also known in North ances.
There was a fierce competition that dominated Africa who became "Greek" philosophers, and Gallic and Berber international relations, in which diplomacy and treaty making chieftains from the far west of France and North Africa had fine sometimes replaced actual fighting.
The drinking vessels were buried with them.
The benefits of expanding a network of size and diversity of the old city-state were accepted by the small just as they were by the large.
People in Egypt, Judea, Syria, and even Afghanistan all had different languages and cultures.
Following the existing commercial networks, this uniform cultures could now communicate more easily with one another Greek culture spread rapidly through the entire Mediterranean and enjoy the same dramatic comedies and new forms of art basin into Southwest Asia.
It was a sculpture and an attractive package.
The Hellenizing ruling elites were successful in spreading a shared spell despite pockets of resistance.
Southwest Asia was included in the Hellenistic and Greek cultures.
Art's sake was no longer a priority in all media.
The town of Ai Khanoum in the modernpolitan area was the epicenter of the new political style, with a gymnasium and theater that was not just into Afghanistan, but also to distant (and often rivalrous) cities.
Alexander named the city after himself, according to legend.
Alexandria attracted an immense and diverse immigrant population from the entire Mediterranean world because of his personal influence.
During the time of the Roman Empire, the city's function was emphasized as an enormous hub for trade and commerce across Afro-Eurasia.
According to this passage, the largest ships can be moored right even twenty ships would dare to go as far as the stairs along its quayside.
Alexandria is well suited as a Great Harbor is divided up into several looks outside its straits.
Alexandria was the second largest city in Egypt and the second largest city in the Mediterranean, from which the most valuable car was brought to Egypt and then sent to the Bay of Naples.
The double charges on the cargo ships reflect the role of trade in this passage.
The passage shows that it is wide enough for riding horses.
The city's role in trade goods of this kind from all over the world indicates the two main roads.
It was translated by Brent Shaw.
The entertainment in the city-states of the fifth century bce, such as Athens, Sparta, and nected world, had to appeal to bigger audiences in order to maintain an exclusive civic identity.
Alexandria was a multiethnic city built from scratch by Greek influence, and they were understood in any envi grants, who quickly totaled half a million as they streamed in ronment.
Distinctive regional humor and local characters gave from all over the Mediterranean and Southwest Asia seeking way to dramas populated by stock characters of standard sit new opportunities.
The greedy miser, resenting dozens of Greek and non-Greek peoples, the old crone, and the golden-hearted whore are some of the members of its dynamic population.
A new urban culture was created to meet the needs of the son.
There are performances throughout the Mediterranean.
The Kingdoms and states of the Hellenistic movement were replaced by enormous local art forms.
In the previous city-state world, people could only relate to political style through comic plays written by the wrights, and the local personality of rulers and their families.
The great theater in the citystate of Syracuse, in Sicily, was refurbished and enlarged.
It could hold up to 20,000 people.
The plays written by playwrights who lived on the far side of their world were read by the people of Syracuse.
In the common culture of the Hel enistic period, plays feature typecast characters and situations in order to broaden their audience.
The ruler of had vanished.
Macedonia wore high platform shoes and heavy makeup, while the teacher of the school he founded emphasized the sun, the stars, and the garden.
The ideal community would be centered on The Garden and solitary sun king like Demetrius, and ordinary individuals felt and stressed the importance of sensation, saying that pleasur small, inconsequential, and isolated.
There were good and bad sensations in response.
It's known as the larger world.
Growing concern with challenges of dealing with excessive wealth in order to find the individual self found expression in many new peace of mind.
Women, a "natural" life (Cynicism), living a life of detachment, and Epi slaves were all ideas that were not included in the social statuses ical schools of the cult.
The Cynic school of the Mediterranean was an early proponent of the new ideas of the Athenian philosopher.
He sought self-sufficiency and freedom from soci by the control of any one city-state, other cults and schools of ety's laws and customs.
The most false inventions were the ones that were not in tune with nature.
A man named Zeno masturbated in public to "relieve himself", as well as to show disdain.
He lived without clothes on the Black Sea.
The values of the city-state were rejected by decorated teachers, but with and roofed colonnade that opened onto the central marketplace, it was less contentious than Diogenes.
He didn't give his followers' names in Athens.
Shrinking the Afro-Eurasian World is 350 bce-250 ce.
The business and administrative center ran along the northern side of the agora, or central business and marketplace of the city.
The shaded areas under the colonnade were where philosophers and their students would hang out as they debated the ideas flowing into Athens from all over the world.
There is a painted wall decoration behind the columns that depicts the Battle of Marathon.
They considered cities and kingdoms cults, like the ecstatic worship of the god Dionysus, important but fleeting.
Being in tune as having traveled from the Mediterranean to India with nature and living a good life required understanding the same as they rules of the natural order and being in control of one's passions spread throughout the Hellenistic world.
Isis was a supreme goddess whose ultimate devaluing of an individual was an engine of the "excellencies" or "supreme virtues" of the Hellenistic economy.
The transition of believers, "born again" into Carthage, was marked in Italy, Sicily, and North African regions.
Alexander's conquests and Rome's politi lives devoted to him had produced unprecedented wealth for a small elite.
The men and women used their wealth to acquire huge tracts of land and to purchase slaves on a scale and with a degree of managerial towns.
The earlier Greek organization has never been adapted in this way before.
The effects of forced labor were reinforced by the circulation of money.
Wealthy landowners, urban elites, and merchants could more easily do business with more cash in the economy.
The increasing use of Greek-style coins to pay for goods and services promoted the importation of commodities such as wine from elsewhere in the Mediterranean.
As money became more available, it led to more commercial exchanges.
The price of gold fell because of the forced transfer of precious metals from Southwest Asia to the Mediterranean.
Carthage began to mint its own coins in gold and other metals.
Rome moved to a money economy at the same time.
The Romans issued coins on a large scale under the pressures of their first war with Carthage.
By the end of the third century bce, borderland peoples such as the Gauls had begun to mint coins, imitating the galloping- horse images found on Macedonia's gold coins.
The coins of Kings Massinissa and Syphax had the same Macedonian royal imagery.
The inhabitants of the Mediterranean basin and surrounding lands used coins to buy and sell all manner of commodities by the end of this period.
Celtic chiefs began selling their own people in the Roman Slaves to pay for the goods that satisfied their new tastes.
There are columns in front of the headquarters of the Roman fortress.
One of the forces driving a new Mediterranean economy was the slave plantations.
The estates created wealth for their owners, though at a heavy price to others, as reliance on slave labor now left the free peasants who used to work the fields with no option but to move into overcrowded cities, where employment was hard to find.
The sudden influx of slaves to work in harsh conditions had unforeseen outcomes.
In the late 70s bce, authorities on Sicily and in southern Italy faced a series of slave uprisings, the largest and most dangerous of which was led by the slave gladiator Spartacus.
These were some of the greatest slave wars.
The Jews who were forced to move to Baby appeal to elites was obvious.
The process of rebuilding Jerusalem began when the well educated and wealthy lon returned to Judea.
The status of Jewish society allowed them to move into more attractive places.
Other groups are less enamored of Greek ways and more of the Persian Empire, which allow local customs and beliefs.
Introducing a new openness to the cultural innovations of the Mediterranean world.
The appeal of high Greek cul was almost irresistible as some parts of the Jewish ruling elite began to adopt ture to elites in widely dispersed communities along the major Greek ways.
The images of gods as art were rejected by the push for a cult of male nudity in the gymnasium.
Those who had a culture that stood above local values.
Roman high their beliefs.
The full-scale armed culture was a form of Greek culture.
Secular plays, ophy, poetry, competitive games, art, and the writing of history provoked when Syrian overlords, the Seleucids, forbade cer followed, all based on Greek forms.
The African kings wore Greek dress and built Greek-style theaters while entering the Jews' temple, which was the holiest place in Judaism.
Jews are regarded as offensive.
Though the Maccabees succeeded in establishing an inde Africa, where the kingdom of Meroe was already centered on the temple in Jerusalem, they influenced by pharaonic forms, now absorbed characteristics.
Greek influ ture is not surprising.
By the beginning of the first century bce, descendants of ences were extensive at Meroe, because the Maccabees were calling themselves kings, minting coins with the Egyptians, and presiding over a largely secular king Mediterranean.
The dom contains both Meroe and its rival, Axum.
The new culture was embraced by a huge Jewish society in the Hellenistic city of Ethiopia.
Scholars boast of their military accomplishments.
According to historians, the men who live in Cyrene worship only Zeus and Dionysius.
Thegods are imitating Greek models.
The rulers of Meroe were more willing to follow Hellenistic advantages of the Greek language than Jerusalem was.
The Romans saw the Greek model as a way to record their accomplishments in order to increase their own importance.
Alexander was able to unite the eastern Mediterra Greek, Egyptian, and African cultural and political elements.
Not every com brings the rest of the Mediterranean together.
Rome went from being a city-state to flourishing as a large ter offer a striking case of resistance to its universalizing forces.
The Romans took on important elements of Hellenistic language as a way to appear to the rest of the world as civi culture.
Some Carthaginians went to Athens and others didn't because they didn't want to be philosophers.
The conservative Roman ies, temples, and other public buildings reveal a marriage senator who struggled with styles: Greek-style pediments and columns mixed with the tensions that these changes involved.
He was Punic designs and measurements, along with local North devoted to the Roman past, Latin language, and ideal African motifs and structures added to the mix.
He did jewelry that Phoenician women adorned themselves with many Hellenistic influences.
He wrote a standard with styles from Egypt, such as ornate necklaces of manual for the new economy of slave plantation agriculture, gold and earrings of lapis lazuli, but coinage and innovative invested in shipping and trading, learned Greek rhetoric ideas on political theory and warfare.
The city's public statements, with bold innovations in most aspects of ruling families took control over western Sicily and Sardinia.
The Phoenician settlements to towns of the Etruscans and Romans in Rome gave Greek ways to elevate its status in the Italy, while the Greek trading city of Massilia in the Mediterranean world was prosperous and already southern France.
The Carthaginians expanded their commercial interests culture because of Hellenistic addition.
They are pushing their influence more than at Rome.
There is a rectangular area of water in the bottom left of the artist's reconstruction.
The military harbor and the commercial port were the major harbors of Carthage.
The main market square and the high central point are above the harbors.
On the bottom right of the fresco is a depiction of a 20-mile wall that protected the city on the land and the coast.
Shrinking the Afro-Eurasian World is more than 600 miles down the Atlantic coast of Africa.
Under Alexander's successors, Hellenism spread even farther across Afro-Eurasia.
Expansion of the Mauryan kingdom in South Asia helped to spread new influences, such as Hellenism and Buddhism.
Merchants, travelers, and nomadic groups were active in promoting the Greek and Buddhist movements in addition to the Mauryan armies.
Afghanistan's Hindu Kush mountains are formidable but not impenetrable.
The shortest route through the mountains is through the passes between Iran to the west and Tibet to the east.
By crossing these passes, Alexander's armies expanded the routes between the eastern and western portions of Afro-Eurasia, created a land bridge that has remained open to this day, and brought about massive political and cultural changes in central and South Asia.
Cross-cultural exchange opportunities were created by these routes and states.
The conquerors moved from west to east, from east to west, and from north to south through the mountains and into the rich plains of the Indus and Ganges River valleys.
Alexander's brief occupation of the Indus Valley paved the way for one of the largest empires in South Asia.
They were elevated over their rivals before Alexander's arrived.
South Asia had been a conglomerate of small warring momentary political vacuum that gave the Mauryans an oppor states.
The dynasty's political instability came to an abrupt halt when, in tunity to extend the dynasty's claims to northwestern regions, a young man from South Asia ascended the throne of the Magadha.
The king " India" is stretching from the river eastward.
The Mauryan regime began to etch out the territorial advantages over other states when it was located at the dom.
It contained a lot of what would become modern India.
As'oka's lands were most likely from the vaishya caste, which grew up in the Punjab region of South Asia, and Alexander's forces were mostly from the southern tip of the peninsula.
The last powerful military and political leader of the dynasty was waged by As'oka.
Alexander withdrew his campaign after he conquered Kalinga, a kingdom on the eastern side of India.
Chandragupta put himself on the coast of the South Asian peninsula by the Bay of Bengal.
The political vacuum was created by the Greek withdrawal.
About 100,000 soldiers died in the battle, many more perished in its aftermath, and the Mauryan army used a lot of mil umph, but at a high price.
When he joins it, As'oka himself.
He was shocked and appalled at the brutality of the Seleucid kingdom, the largest successor kingdom of Alexander's army.
He vowed to stop the empire based in Mesopotamia.
Its king, Seleucus Nicator, fretted causing pain to his people and pledged to follow the peaceful about his neighbor's challenge and invaded Mauryan territory.
He was in a state of guilt and only faced Chandragupta's defenses.
A treaty between the two powers gave his grandfather's large portion of Afghanistan to the Mauryan Empire.
As'oka was a faithful follower and patron tory of the terri Jainism and Buddhism that arose at the same time as after being incorporated into the Mauryan Empire.
His edict on peace was informed by Buddhism.
After the conquest of Kalinga, the daughters of Seleucus went to the Mauryan court at As'oka and claimed that he would only conquests with a group of Greek women.
He sent an ambassador, Megasthenes, to Chandragupta's court, as well as building stupas, or domes, all over his domain.
The society depicted in the book was divided into seven groups: philosophers, farmers, sol and even Greeks.
It became an all-rounded moral code.
All religious sects in South Asia accepted people.
Megasthenes noted his subjects, to respect him as their father, and to conform to ways in which rulers integrated the region.
These arteries were used to get religions and sects together.
He was provided with a stone mileage mark and lined with trees.
If these roads aided traders, they also aided the ruler's scale cattle sacrifice.
The troops are going to march.
According to Megasthe, he warned the "forest people," the hunters and gatherers living nes, soldiers were a profession separate from the rest of the beyond reach of government to avoid making trouble and population.
The Greek observer was surprised by this.
When there was no decree, Mauryan troops did not work.
They constituted a standing force of immense proportions, in every corner of his domain, selecting locations where peo would obey their commander.
The military force was large and they were likely to congregate and hear the boasting cavalry divisions of mounted horses, war elephants, and words as read to them by the few who were literate.
All were written in local languages.
The Kalinga war caused a lot of problems for Asoka's people.
Asoka ruled a country of many different cultures and religions.
They should only consider victory for mother and father.
Why would As'oka refer to misfortunes of their friends.
The follower of Gods was As'oka.
There is no land where the Beloved of the Gods have not left, parts of this passage do not support one sect or another.
The Beloved of the Gods only looks at that that applied to all religious and Beloved of the Gods conciliates the forest as important in its results which pertains ethnic communities, but he warns them to the next world.