ChAPTER 14 -- Part 4: Civilization in Eastern Europe:
The Schism Then, in 1054, an ambitious church patriarch in Constantinople raised a host of issues, including a quarrel over what kind of bread to use for the celebration of Christ's last supper in the church liturgy.
The bread quarrel was related to the ritual use of bread in Christ's day and whether it should be baked without yeast.
The Roman Catholic practice of celibacy for priests was attacked by the patriarch.
The disputes were discussed by the delegations of the two churches.
Christ's message has been understood by theologians and artists, but they have struggled to capture his image.
The first part of the 14th century saw the creation of the Church of Chora.
The Byzantine empire was stylized on divine majesty.
The holy women are at the sepulchre of Christ.
The Roman Catholics were excommunicated.
The split between the Roman Catholic church and Eastern Orthodoxy became formal and has continued to this day.
If I am subject to the Muslim, at least he will not force me to share my faith.
The split between the Eastern and Western churches was not complete.
A common Christianity with many shared or revived classical traditions and frequent commercial and cultural contacts continued to improve the relationship between the two European civilizations.
The different patterns of development of the two civilizations were reflected in the division.
Different ideas about the role of scholarship separated the two regions, with eastern Europe developing a less elaborate tradition in relation to religion.
The role of the state in religious affairs may have contributed to the differences between the two main European regions.
The Byzantine empire entered a long period of decline after the split between the Eastern and Western churches.
Turkish invaders who had converted to Islam in central Asia began to press on its eastern borders, having already gained influence in the Muslim caliphate.
The Byzantine emperor lost the battle of Manzikert in 1071), his larger army was destroyed, and the empire never recovered.
After four centuries, its doom was sealed as a significant power.
The empire's diminished power was demonstrated by the creation of new, independent Slavic kingdoms in the Balkans.
Eastern emperors asked for help against the Turks, but their requests were largely ignored.
The requests did not help the Byzantines.
Special trading privileges in Constantinople were a sign of the shift in power between the East and the West.
The Crusade was supposed to conquer the Holy Land from the Muslims, but turned against Byzantium.
The Crusade briefly deposed the Venetian emperor and weakened the whole imperial structure.
In the northern Middle East, Turkish settlements pressed ever closer to Constantinople, and finally, in 1433, a Turkish sultan brought a powerful army to destroy the city.
The fall of Constantinople ended the great eastern empire.
The map shows that the Byzantine empire went from a major to a minor power.
The impact of the fall of Byzantium will be dealt with in several later chapters.
It was important because the Byzantine empire was so important and important that it anchored a vital corner of the Mediterranean and an important segment of world trade.
The empire's ability to spread classical and Christian learning made it a vital unit throughout the post classical period.
The new Ottoman empire's legacy continued after its demise.
The problem of boundaries between civilizations and even aristocracies in Poland and Hungary has long attracted the attention of scholars.
These states were limited by the standards.
The territory of the two related civilizations with western Europe was defined.
A number of states Russian expansion later pulled parts of eastern Europe, sat, and still sit, on the borders of the two civilizations, sharing including Poland, although it never eliminated some characteristics of each.
Poland was conquered by Russia.
Russia proper is a civilization defined by its mainstream culture.
The divisions within eastern Europe intensified for two centuries after the end of the postclassical period.
Many eastern European countries have achieved of the Cyril ic and Greek or of the Latin alphabet.
They want to claim their ing, Poland, the Czech areas, and the Baltic states from Russia.
Not an easy border area to describe in not convert to Catholicism until the 14th century) are western, terms of a single civilization, east central Europe has also been and Hungary is largely so.
South Slavs are mostly a victim of many conquests and periods of Orthodoxy.
Russia and Ukraine are both Orthodox.
Russia has a less active relationship with western Europe than Poland and other Catholic regions.
The case is more political.
There are other civilization border areas in the postclassical style that are similar to the feudal monar period or later, but it's difficult to define because of their chies that were developing in western Europe.
The empire had been the source of a Europe before the Byzantine decline after the 11th century.
Most people in the Balkans were converted to Christianity by Orthodox missionaries who were sent from Constantinople.