There have been more than 2,500 presidential vetoes of congressional bills.
More than 100 of them were overrode by Congress.
More than 100 acts of Congress were found to be unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
The Supreme Court and nine cabinet members have not been confirmed by the Senate.
Other appointees withdrew because of Senate opposition.
There have been cases of impeachment of federal judges.
One way the president can get around Senate opposition to an appointment is through a recess appointment, a temporary appointment of the president's choice made during a congressional recess.
At the end of the one year appointment, the president must submit the nominee for Senate confirmation.
If one branch tries to challenge the authority of another, it could lead to a constitutional crisis.
If the president deploys troops in a country for an extended period of time and ignores the provisions of the War Powers Act, an act of Congress that limits presidential authority to send armed forces to another country, there is a good chance of an unresolvable conflict.
The Supreme Court doesn't get involved in those kinds of conflicts.
Congress has challenged the president's authority in foreign policy conflicts in Bosnia but has not placed restrictions on his authority.
The most significant feature of checks and balances is that they show that our government is limited.
Even our most dominant presidents had to deal with the interests and concerns of the legislature and judiciary, even though many political scientists point to the power of the presidency.
The relationship between the federal government and the states is mapped out in two articles and one amendment, as well as establishing a balance of power among the three branches of government.
The term "full faith and credit" is used to describe the mutual respect and legality of laws, public records, and judicial decisions made by states.
If Nevada has rules for marriage and divorce, New York must recognize them as valid.
President Clinton signed the Defense of Marriage Act into law in 1996.
The law gives states the authority to refuse to recognize gay marriages performed in other states, and it also denies gays who were legally married all the federal benefits given to other married couples.
The law was challenged and is going to the Supreme Court.
The law within each state is recognized as legal if the state's laws conflict with each other.
Section 2 states that "the citizens of each state shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens in all the states."
This provision guarantees that the rights of a citizen in one state will be respected by other states.
The phrase "privileges and immunities" becomes a significant phrase in the Fourteenth Amendment, where states are told they cannot abridge the privileges and immunities of their citizens.
The legitimate claim to fugitives is recognized by the states.
The word republican is important.
It suggests that every state should have a limited government.
Every state will be protected from outside attacks by the United States.
The most important statement in the relationship between the federal government and the states is found in article VI.
The clause tells the states that they can't pass laws that conflict with federal actions.
State officials pledge their loyalty to the Constitution.
When Maryland was told it couldn't tax the National Bank, this precedent was established.
The principle of limited government can be found in the Constitution.
The Tenth Amendment states that federalism is the relationship between the federal government and state governments.
The states are told that they have reserved powers.
Powers not delegated to the government are given to the states.
Federalism will explore the application and interpretation of this relationship.
A federal system of government is formed by including language that gives legitimacy to state governments and establishes a defined relationship between the federal government and the states.
The federal government and state governments are told throughout the document that they do not have unlimited power.
The system of checks and balances limited the three branches.
The Congress is told that it can't deny the right of appeal or pass bills of attainder.
There are exceptions to some of the limitations.
In times of national emergency, the Supreme Court has determined that the federal government can place restrictions on the civil liberties of its citizens.
Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas in the border states during the Civil War.
Japanese-Americans were ordered to internment camps during World War II.
The rationale for including a Bill of Rights in the Constitution was to reinforce the idea of limited government.
The government is told that the rights of its citizens must be protected, from the opening words of the First Amendment, to the due process guarantees of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments.
The Bill of Rights and Civil Liberties will examine this issue further.
The philosophy of the Enlightenment is that government is created by the consent of the governed.
Natural rights can't be taken away by the government.
The Constitution can be amended to meet the needs of a changing society.
The Constitution has only been amended 15 times if you don't count the Bill of Rights.
The revisions help to strengthen, expand, and explain provisions found in the original document.
There are two ways to amend the Constitution.
The one that has been used the most requires a two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress.
The second method, which has only been used once, is when Congress must call for a national constitutional convention after a request is made by two-thirds of the state legislatures.
There may be a time limit on the approval of amendments.
The Equal Rights Amendment, which would have guaranteed the equality of rights by the United States and every state, was given seven years and an extension to pass in two-thirds of the state legislatures.
It died because of political pressure brought on by groups opposed to public funding of abortion and groups concerned about the effect that affirmative action would have on various labor laws.
The Bill of Rights took less than a year to be approved.
One must project that other amendments to the Constitution are a real possibility if the Constitution is an enduring document.
A balanced budget amendment, term limits for Congress, abolition of the electoral college, and a provision for equal rights for women and homosexuals are some of the measures that have advocates.
After the Supreme Court ruled in Texas v Johnson (1989) that flag burning is a form of political protest, Congress failed to pass a constitutional amendment making it illegal to burn the flag.
The Constitution's elasticity adds to its viability.
Political parties, the president's cabinet, special interest groups, political action committees, and the federal bureaucracy are examples of traditions, precedent, and practice incorporated into our form of government.
New instruments of government can be created with the Constitution's flexibility and adaptability.
The elastic clause and powers given to the Congress in the Constitution are some of the greatest instruments of change that Congress has at its disposal.
The Judiciary Act of 1789 gave Congress the power to expand the size of the government.
Congress has used the elastic clause to pass civil rights legislation, it has broadly interpreted the meaning of interstate commerce, and it has passed a war powers act under its power to declare war.
Most of the political system we are used to is not provided for by the Constitution or any law.
The influence of political parties has become a dominant feature of government despite warnings from the Federalist Papers and George Washington.
The importance of party politics can be seen when the Republican Party can unite and not vote for the president's budget proposal.
This becomes an additional check when a party starts a continuous debate in the Senate to block the passage of legislation.
The Supreme Court went beyond the parameters in establishing precedent.
The Marbury v Madison decision established judicial review and found a way to protect the right of a woman to have an abortion.
Government is made up of custom and tradition.
Washington announced the formation of cabinet positions after executive departments were established.
As they approved additional cabinet positions, Congress codified this concept.
Franklin Roosevelt broke the tradition of a two-term president.
The tradition of limiting presidential terms was made a part of the Constitution after he died.
The presidential succession amendment was passed after John Kennedy's death.
The country didn't realize that Spiro Agnew, the country's vice president, and the president, Richard Nixon, would resign after the assassination.
The document that sets the course for American government was the focus of this chapter.
As you look more closely at the workings of our government and political system, an understanding of the Constitution will make your job easier.
A, B, D, and E are incorrect and choice C is a correct generalization, so you have a broadly defined question with a general statement.
In the 1994 midterm election, voters had the chance to change representatives every two years.
The intent of the decision was not to create gerrymandered districts.
The decision did not affect voting districts for state offices.
The creation of the second National Bank was based on the elastic clause, which is a classic example of an implied power of Congress.
As part of the general-welfare-legislating ability of Congress, the passing of an assault weapons ban as part of a crime bill was implied.
The other choices are examples of delegated powers.
Taking on the role of head of a political party is assumed by the president.
If the president dies in office, the vice president is first in line of succession.
There are other roles for the president and vice president.
President Clinton gave Vice President Gore the job of coming up with a report on how to change government.
Presidential electors were given the responsibility of actually voting for the president after an electoral college was instituted.
The number of electors each state had was determined by its population.
The power of the states is expanded by the Reserved Power Clause.
The passage of the crime bill after the conference is the only choice that does not involve a direct check.
The other choices are great examples of checks and balances.
If there is a greater reliance on the federal government to solve problems, you can conclude that a by-product would be an increased role on the part of the president.
If you knew about the Clarence Thomas nomination, you would know that it is characterized by bitter confirmation battles.
The provision had an impact on public policy.
Explain how the amendment changed public policy.
This clause is often used to justify the federal government's actions regarding issues not originally considered at the Constitutional Convention.
The Brady Bill is an example of the clause's impact on public policy.
The bill mandated a seven-day waiting period prior to the purchase of a gun, during which the purchaser's record would be checked for prior convictions and arrests.
The "necessary and proper" clause has given the federal government the authority to do many things that it would not have been possible for it to do, because the Constitution never specifically granted the government the authority to act with respect to those areas.
The elastic clause can be used to apply the healthcare debate, which has often centered on whether or not the federal government has a duty to pay for an individual's medical services.
The federal government has an obligation and responsibility to fund healthcare if one believes that it is necessary in this day and age.
The process is outlined in the Constitution.
There are two stages to the amendment process.
There are two ways in which the first stage can be achieved.
An amendment can be proposed by a two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress.
The second way is for a national convention to propose an amendment to the constitution.
The second stage of the amending process can be achieved in two different ways.
The first way is for the amendment to be approved by the legislatures of most of the states.
A convention called for by three-fourths of the states is the second way for an amendment to be approved.
The Constitution's flexibility is demonstrated by the Twenty-Fifth Amendment.
There were no provisions for presidential disability when the Constitution was first drafted.
If the president becomes disabled, the vice president assumes the responsibilities of that office until he can resume his duties.
When a president undergoes surgery, the vice president is technically in charge.
After Spiro Agnew resigned and Nixon appointed Gerald Ford, the second part of this amendment was used.
Nelson Rockefeller was appointed vice president by Ford after Nixon resigned.
There are two ways in which the Constitution can be amended.
The Constitution can be amended after a majority of both houses of Congress pass it.
If two-thirds of the states call for a national convention and three-fourths of the states approve, an amendment to the Constitution can be passed.
If the amendment is applied to public policy, a second point will be earned.