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19.1 Systematic Biology -- Part 1
In this chapter, we look at how biologists classify organisms based on ancestry.
The Linnaean classification hierarchy has levels.
The scientific name of the organisms should be identified.
Section 17.3 examined macroevolution, evolutionary Page 338 change that results in the formation of new species.
The source of the past and present is macroevolution.
The study of biodiversity helps us understand the evolutionary relationships between species.
The relationships among organisms are inferred through the use of traits of living and fossil organisms.
"usage, law" is a branch of systematic biology that identifies, names, and organizes biodiversity into related categories.
The taxon has organisms with a spine column.
Taxonomy describes the classification of organisms.
Throughout history, the methods used to classify living organisms have changed.
The ancient Greek philosopher was interested in Taxonomy, and he sorted organisms into groups based on a set of shared traits.
The method was problematic because many features of organisms were similar not because they shared a common ancestor, but because of convergent evolution.
Birds, bats, and beetles, all of which have wings, are different in many other ways.
Natural groups are groupings of organisms that represent a shared evolutionary history.
Natural groups are classified by using a set of traits to create a family tree that represents the evolutionary history of taxa.
The evolutionary history is used to classify taxa.
Modern biologists are able to compare trait other than external features to classify organisms.
Birds, bats, and beetles are not related to wings.
As a result of convergent evolution, wings originated on three different branches of the tree of life.
Carolus Linnaeus, considered to be the father of modern taxonomy, created the classification hierarchy that taxonomists use today.
The way to organize biodiversity was developed by Linnaeus.
Europeans traveled to distant parts of the world and described, collected, and sent back to Europe examples of plants and animals they had never seen before.
The binomial system of naming and classification was created by Linnaeus.
His original name was Karl von Linne, but he latinized it because of his fascination with scientific names.
Linnaeus wanted to classify plants.
Sometimes the specific epithet tells us something about the organisms.
The scientific name is in italics.
Without a street name and a specific epithet, it's useless to find an address.
The group of related species can be referred to with the genus name alone.
There are many ways in which scientific names are derived.
Latin is used to describe organisms for a variety of reasons.
People who speak the same language sometimes use different names for the same organisms.
The common name is sometimes given to different organisms.
Latin is a universal language that is well known by many of the same people who were physicians or clerics.
Common names can cause confusion when used by scientists.
Linnaeus used a binomial system to classify species.
Taxonomists use a set of categories to classify organisms.
The organisms that fill a particular classification category have the same set of traits as other organisms.
Organisms are classified into categories.
The species is the most nested.
Many genera can be in the same family, and several species can share the same name.
The number of boxes depends on the amount of diversity in the group.
Depending on the study, the family Muridae can be divided into 150 to 250 genera and up to 1,000 species.
Organisms in the same domain have general characteristics in common with those in the same species.
All animals are included in the kingdom Animalia.
There are only animals with a spine in the kingdom Animalia.
There are animals within the class that have mammary glands and have spine cords.
The species is the most exclusive of the categories as it only contains one type of organisms.
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