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21 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives -- Part 28
carboxyl groups and hydroxy groups are found in many terpenes.
A terpene aldehyde, a terpene alcohol, a terpene ketone, and a terpene acid are shown.
They are brightly colored because of their extended system of double bonds.
Carotenes help to give tree leaves their fiery colors in autumn, and they are responsible for the pigmentation of carrots, tomatoes, and squash.
It can be divided into two diterpenes.
Cholesterol has lost three carbon atoms from the original six isoprene units of squalene.
There is a carbon atom between rings C and D.
Carotenes are thought to be the biological precursors of retinol.
Each of the diterpene fragments can be converted to retinol if a molecule of b@carotene is split in half at the tail-to-tail linkage.
Natural products that do not have carbon skeletons composed exclusively of C5 isoprene units are derived from terpenes.
They could have been altered by loss of carbon atoms or introduction of additional carbon atoms.
Some of the isoprenoid carbon atoms have been lost inCholesterol is an example of a terpenoid that has lost some of the isoprenoid carbon atoms.
cholesterol is a triterpenoid formed from six isoprene units with loss of three carbon atoms.
There are six isoprene units with the exception of one tail-to-tail linkage.
squalene is believed to be the triterpene precursor of cholesterol.
An acid-catalyzed cyclization of squalene can give an intermediate that is later converted to cholesterol with loss of three carbon atoms.
A mixture of ethyl and methyl acids are produced from fats and oils.
This mixture can be used in diesel engines.
A compound is an emulsifying agent.
A few of the common classes of synthetic detergents are alkylbenzenesulfonate salts, alkyl sulfate salts, alkylammonium salts, and nonionic detergents.
The formation of an emulsion is promoted.
A mixture of two liquids dispersed in small droplets.
There is a solid at room temperature.
The numbers of carbon atoms in most naturally occurring fatty acids are between 12 and 20.
The water has acids or ion that react with soaps to form precipitates.
It was attracted to the water.
The two surfaces of a structure are formed by an aggregation of phosphoglycerides with the hydrophilic heads.
Substances can be taken from cells and tissues.
Cholesterols that are easy to make are usually simpler to make.
It is not easy to lysosomal to simpler constituents.
A group of compounds suspended in a solvent, usually water.
The heads of the molecule are in contact with the solvent, and the tails are in the cluster.
There is a chance that the micelle does not contain an oil droplet.
There is a liquid at room temperature.
The three hydroxy groups are esterified by two fatty acids and a phosphoric acid derivative.
There is a variety of glycerol esterified by two fatty acids and one free phosphoric acid group.
A variety of compounds with the same name are in the group.
A variety of conjugates with a group of acids called the phosphoric acid group.
There are at least one or more groups derived from phosphoric acid.
There are multiple carbon-carbon double bonds.
Usually applied to fish oils and vegetable oils that contain double bonds.
A class of biochemical regulators consists of a 20-carbon carboxylic acid with a cyclone ring.
It was used to describe the process of making soap.
There are few or no carbon-carbon double bonds in glycerol.
Saturated fats are found in butter, lard, and tallow.
The compound is based on the ring system.
A family of compounds composed of two or more 5-carbon isoprene units.
A family of compounds with altered or rearranged carbon skeletons.
The trans isomers of fatty acids are unnatural.
Trans fats are formed in the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils to make margarine and vegetable shortening.
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