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19 -- Part 4: Africa and the World
The salt trade dominated the West African economies in the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries.
Taghaza was the main salt-mining center.
Slaves used to dig salt from desiccated lakes and load it onto their backs.
Along with the Moors, their salt was used for gold, grain, slaves, and kola nuts.
Europe was flooded with bullion in the 16th century.
They were the medium of exchange in West Africa.
Basket weaving, pottery and mak ing are some of the crafts that the West African peoples do.
Ironworking was considered family property when it became hereditary in individual families.
The textile industry has a high level of specialization.
How did outsiders arrive in East Africa in the early modern period?
Ethiopia faced chal enges from both Muslims and Europeans at the beginning of the 16th century.
The wealthy city-states along the southeastern coast of Africa were confronted with European intrusions in the 16th century.
The arrival of the Portuguese in 1498 caused economic decline for such cities.
The Solomonic dynasty faced serious external threats at the beginning of the 16th century when Ethiopia extended from Massawa in the north to several other states in the south.
The practiced in Ethiopia.
Adal, a Muslim state along the southern base of the Red Sea, began incursions into Ethiopia, and in 1529 the Adal general Ahmad ibn-Ghazi inflicted a disastrous defeat on the emperor Lebna Dengel.
The destruction of the land, churches, and monasteries, as well as the forced conversion of thousands to Islam, were all part of Ahmad's victory.
Dengel appealed to Portugal for help after fleeing to the mountains.
A Portuguese force of four hundred men came to his aid, but he was killed in battle before the Portuguese arrived.
After the battle of Wayna Daga, the Muslim occupation of Christian Ethiopia came to an end.
Ethiopia encountered three more Dan gers after the Muslim threat ended.
The Gal a moved northward in large numbers, occupying portions of Harar, Shoa, and Amhara.
The Ethiopias could not defeat them in a military way.
The two peoples lived side by side for two centuries.
Massawa and other coastal cities were seized by the Ottoman Turks.
The Jesuits tried to force Roman Catholicism on the Coptic people, who have a Coptic form of Christianity.
The Jesuit missionary tried to replace ancient Ethiopia customs and practices with Roman ones.
Ethiopia's national sentiment was tied to Coptic Christianity, leading to violent rebellion and anarchy.
The Jesuit missionaries were kicked out of the country.
Ethiopia was hostile to foreigners, weak political leadership, and regionalism for the next two centuries.
The Coptic Church was the cor nerstone of Ethiopia's national identity.
The Swahili have incorporated aspects of Arabic culture.
Arabic makes up 35 percent of the words in Swahili.
Islam provided a common identity and unifying factor for all the peoples along coastal East Africa by the eleventh century.
The influences of Indians, Indonesians, and Persians were felt by the Swahili who lived on the Indian Ocean coast.
The majority of the Swahili civilization was maritime.
A fertile, well-watered, and intensely cultivated stretch of land extending down the coast yielded rice, grains, citrus fruit, and cloves.
The region's prosperity was dependent on trade and commerce.
The Swahili acted as a middleman in the East African economy.
They exchanged ivory, rhinoceros horn, tortoise shell, and inland slaves for Arabian and Persian perfumes, toilet articles, ink, and paper, and for Indian textiles, beads, and iron tools.
The end of the Swahili cit ies' independence was caused by the arrival of the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama in 1498. da Gama wanted to build a Portuguese maritime empire in the Indian Ocean.
The rulers responded in different ways to the intrusion.
The sultan of Malindi quickly agreed to trading with the Portuguese.
The sultan of Mom basa was tricked into commercial agreements.
The cities of other Swahili rulers were bombarded after they rejected Portuguese overtures.
Between 1502 and 1507 the Portuguese built forts at the southern port cities of Kilwa, Zanzibar, and Sofala.
Commercial fortunes were high in the East African city- states.
The residents of the north deserted the towns and the southern town economies crumbled because of the mercial restrictions.
The gold flow from land mines to Sofala slowed.
The term "People of the successful y prevented the Portuguese from gaining control of the Coast" was used for the people living along the East African coast.
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