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22.1 Evolution and Characteristics of Fungi
This packaging can be grown into any shape, creating custom-made home insulation and packaging materials for any type of product.
Mushroom packaging requires less energy to create than styrofoam or plastic and is completely organic.
Products derived from the natural processes of fungi have the potential to change society and the environment.
There are similarities between animals and fungi.
There are three types of fungi: haploid, dikaryotic, and diploid.
Define the structural features of fungi.
Over 100,000 species of mostly multicellular Page 395 eukaryotes share a common mode of nutrition.
Mycologists, scientists who study fungi, expect the number of species to increase in the future as new species are discovered.
Plants make their own food.
Like animals, fungi are preformed Heterotrophs and consume organic matter.
Animals and fungi are both Heterotrophs that eat food.
Their cells break down dead and decaying organic matter.
The cells of the fungus absorb the vitamins and minerals.
The classification of the fungus is incomplete.
New groups of fungi have been detected and previously identified groups are not monophyletic.
There are as many as seven phyla that have yet to be defined.
The hypotheses shown in the relationships are supported by DNA analysis.
Animals and Fungi are part of the supergroup Opisthokonta.
There is a close-up of the fungi branch of the evolutionary tree.
The evolutionary relationship is a current hypothesis.
There are two major hypotheses about the changes in Page 396.
The chytrids were grouped with blastocladiomycota, but now they are recognized as distinct phyla.
There is increasing evidence that Zygomycota is not monophyletic and that it is not recognized in current classification.
zygospore fungi are placed within subphyla of uncertain origin or within the Glomeromycota.
The major lineages will be discussed in this chapter because of the changing knowledge of these relationships.
Ascomycetes and basidiomycetes are the subject of our discussion.
Some 1.5 billion years ago, protists evolved.
Animals and fungi are more closely related to each other than to plants.
The ancestors of animals and fungi were most likely an aquatic, flagellated, single-celled protist.
The multicellular forms evolved after the animals and fungi split.
It is difficult to estimate when Fungi first evolved because they don't fossilize well.
The earliest known fossil fungi are at least a million years old.
During the Silurian, plants began to live on the land, and they brought with them fungi.
Some plant fossils were dated some 500 mya.
The colonization of land by plants may have been aided by fungi.
When organisms began to colonize land, it is most likely that much of the fungal diversity had its origin in an adaptive radiation.
The yeasts are single-celled, but the vast majority of species are multicellular.
The mycelium is a multicellular structure in most fungi.
The network of "fungus" is referred to as "Gk".
The mycelium has a large surface-to-volume ratio and this maximizes the absorption of nutrients into the body of a fungus.
The mycelium grows as a white mass on strawberries.
There is a plant.
In some fungi, septa or walls of tissue are formed behind the growing tip, and the hyphae are partitioned into individual cells.
The septa in the hyphae of the Fungi allow the cytoplasm to pass freely from one cell to another.
The septa that separates reproductive cells are not open in all groups.
There are no plant tissues foreptate fungi.
A portion of the mycelium becomes a reproductive structure when a fungus reproduces.
The cell wall of a fibroblast is made of chitin, which is different from the cell wall of a plant.
Chitin is found in arthropods, a major group of animals that include insects and crustaceans.
The same molecule that animals use to store energy is stored by fungi.
The fungi are not motile.
Terrestrial fungi do not have flagella at any point in their life cycle.
hyphae grow toward a food source.
The species has different lengths of time for each phase.
During sexual reproduction, hyphae from two different types make contact.
In some species, the nuclei from the two types are immediately fused.
In other species, the nuclei don't come together for days, months or even years.
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