The Court decisions in June of 2015 made a difference in Obama's foreign policy.
The final effort paid off in 2015, when relations with Cuba were normalized.
The United States, Russia, China, Germany, Britain, France, and the European Union signed a draft treaty with Iran to stop it from developing a nuclear weapon.
The agreement called for the Iranians to dismantle much of their nuclear program in exchange for an end to the international trade embargo.
Despite opposition from Israel, the Iran nuclear deal was finalized in July of 2015.
John Adams claimed in 1780 that the republic had been divided into two great parties.
His fears were correct.
Many party followers distrust the opposition party because of over- the- top partisanship.
They don't acknowledge its legitimacy and don't respect it.
People with strong political views think the opposition has no redeeming virtues.
The zero- sum game is a death match between good and evil.
There is no room for compromise or bargaining because of intense team loyalties.
In the survey on the partisan divide, it was found that record numbers of Americans are declaring their independence and rejecting both the Republican and Democratic parties.
There are more independents than there are Democrats or Republicans.
Independent voters tend to be closer to Republicans on economic issues than to Democrats on social issues, and their growing numbers represent a direct reaction against the unprecedented polarization of the two parties.
During the 2016 presidential campaign, the polarization of American society and politics was on full display.
Voters angry at cultural liberalism, bureaucratic incompetence, and self-serving focus of party leaders were the focus of the contest. "
Both parties have failed us," said a lifelong conservative.
Americans were more divided about partisan politics than they were about race, class, gender, and age according to surveys.
The majority of Republicans are non- Hispanic whites with an average age of fifty.
Half of Democrats call themselves liberals.
A 2010 survey found that 49 percent of Republicans would resist their child marrying a Democrat, and 33 percent of Democrats would oppose their child marrying a Republican.
Many working class whites felt left behind by the economic recovery as the 2016 presidential campaign began.
They had seen their factory jobs go offshore.
Others saw their wages stagnant, their prospects diminished, and their hopes were crushed.
Although the unemployment rate was low in the U.S., many people struggled to pay their bills.
One in ten Americans missed bill payments because of unstable work schedules.
Many blamed the economic system that favored the wealthy, government subsidized minorities, low wage immigrant labor and the political elite for their troubles.
Their shared fears and resentments coalesced into a white nationalist backlash against multiculturalism.
Hil ary Rodham Clinton, the former First Lady and Secretary of State in the Obama administration, was one of two Democrats who emerged as presidential candidates in 2015.
The policy- fluent Clinton, a supreme political insider, represented the party establishment, but she was more admired than loved by most Democrats.
Younger, progressive Democrats who viewed Clinton as too conservative and scripted appealed most to the rumpled, white- haired socialist.
A college student in Ohio said that she seems to be false.
Clinton was portrayed as a fraud who claimed to be a friend of the common folk, but actually preferred working with the rich and famous, and who promised to protect American jobs while supporting free- trade pacts that shut down plants and factories.
Clinton became the first female major party nominee in history after a series of primaries.
There were two very different candidates for the Democrats to choose from.
The Republican contest was not a campaign.
Donald Trump, a New Yorker with a genius for self- promotion and a habit of stretching the truth, was the only one who competed for the nomination.
He had national name recognition, unlike the other candidates.
Many Repub licans were upset by Trump's campaign.
Disgruntled Republicans and those attracted to the Tea Party increased Trump's popularity.
Trump was the wealthiest of the candidates and the only one who refused to dis close his tax returns.
Like Bill Clinton, he was always on the go and eager to be loved and loved.
Trump positioned himself as an "outsider" who promised to "drain the swamp" of corruption created by political insiders in Washington, D.C.
Donald John Trump appealed to voters fed up with conventional politics and to journalists eager to cover his latest controversial statement because he was unconventional, unpredictable, and inexplicable.
Trump was born in Queens, New York City, and attended two universities before earning a degree in eco nomics at the University of Pennsylvania.
Trump used a large loan from his father to start a successful real estate development business.
Trump expanded his business empire into the casino gambling industry and later acquired numerous golf resorts around the world.
He focused on building the Trump brand despite his own failures.
A master at the use of social media can do a lot to reinforce the anger felt by many Americans left out of the economic recovery.
He was one of the few candidates who embraced the people living on the left side of the country, including those suffering from the drug epidemic, declining manufacturing jobs, and the rising cost of health care.
There were more people living in poverty in 2016 than ever before.
Many of them grew up assuming that America was the most powerful and prosperous nation in the world because of the upward mobility it provided its citizens.
The chance of adults in their thirties earning more than their parents over the course of their lives went from 90 percent to 50 percent.
The American middle class was no longer the world's richest.
Donald Trump wore a "Make America Great Again" baseball cap at his rally in Florida.
Many of the disgruntled voters were members of the Tea Party.
He depicted a declining America besieged by cheap Chinese imports, Muslim terrorists, and illegal immigrants, and poorly led by self- serving liberal "elites" who championed unconstrained diversity at the expense of national security.
He promised to repeal the health care law, cut taxes, abandon the "unfair" trade deals, and appoint only the best people to his administration.
He promised to build a wall along the entire border with Mexico, from the Pacific Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico, and to make the Mexican government pay for it.
Simple solutions were offered by Trump.
He was famous for his exaggerations, half- truths, and praise for white supremacists and foreign dictators.
As he was swept along by a wave of populist rage, Trump overflowed with confidence.
He claimed that he was the best, the smartest, and the toughest candidate to fix America's problems.
Trump captured daily headlines and built grass roots support.
He focused on the fears and prejudices of his supporters, as well as the fears and prejudices of working class whites in the South and Midwest.
Trump's campaign was helped by the influ ence of social media.
People can now discuss politics in an unmediated way, reading and expressing themselves in a way that is not allowed on television or in newspapers.
In July of 2016 Trump won the Republican nomination.
The con servative movement was fractured by the outsider and his popu list insurgency.
They were treated disrespectfully when they refused to attend the Republican convention or campaign for him.
Trump never paid attention to the opposition within his own party.
He loved the challenge of running against two parties, for he knew his supporters were committed to him.
"I wouldn't lose my voters if I shot someone in the middle of Fifth Avenue," Trump said.
Donald Trump and Hil ary Clinton had a contest in which they insulted each other.
He made fun of her as a creature of the Washington and Wall Street elite who pretended to be a friend of the people while raking in millions of dollars for the Clinton Foundation.
Clinton labeled Trump as dangerous, unpredictable, and lacking the temperament demanded of the U.S. president.
One startling surprise after another was featured in the fall campaign.
Clinton confronted her own scandals.
The State Department couldn't archive her 62,000 messages because of the risk that they would be hacked by foreign agents.
After an extensive investigation, the FBI director concluded that Clinton had been careless in her handling of email, but there was no reason to prosecute her.
Clinton's honesty and reliability were called into question by Republican critics.
There were more surprises.
In the summer of 2016 agents of the Rus sian government "hacked" the email system of the Democratic National Committee and forwarded the data to WikiLeaks, which they colluded with Russian agents to release tens of thousands of confidential messages intended to hurt the Clinton campaign.
After announcing that he would not tion with an unrelated case, the FBI director swore an oath to keep the FBI out of national elections.
The revelation hit the Clinton campaign hard.
The ongoing investigation into her emails would last beyond Election Day, as it raised new questions about her presidential fitness.
Clinton claimed that the "October surprise" cost her the election.
Clinton lost to Trump on November 8.
Major pols had predicted a narrow Democratic victory.
Trump won more electoral votes than she did.
Clinton received 3 million more votes than she did, but she lost by 78,000 votes in the crucial swing states of Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.
All three branches of the federal government, as well as 32 state legislatures and 33 governorships, would be taken over by the Republicans.
The liberalism promoted by the Democratic party was sent reeling.
Clinton's failure to attract white working class and lower middle class males in the rust belt states was her downfall, along with the fact that fewer than expected Democrat- leaning minority voters went to the polls.
More than 2,600 counties went for Trump.
The most important factor motivating Trump voters in those counties was a sense of lost ground.
The average annual income of an American worker in 2016 was $44,500, not much more than the 1979 average.
Almost 80 percent of Americans claim to live from paycheck to paycheck, saving little for the future.
The economy is growing, but profits are going to a small group.
Eco nomic inequality has never been worse.
Clinton was a lackluster defender of more government as a solution to the nation's problems.
She couldn't articulate a unifying vision or explain why she should be president.
She said traditional politicians don't appeal to us.
Trump could be the first president to claim several firsts.
He was the oldest president on Inauguration Day and the first to never have served in the military or held public office.
The most unpopular president in history was Trump.
His approval rate was the lowest when he took office.
After a majority of Americans voted against him, he was elected and the oppo nents began to fight for his presidency.
The resistance to President Trump quickly became a significant political force.
Women upset by Trump's election organized mass demonstrations the day after the presidential inauguration on behalf of women's rights, immigrants and refugees, improved health care, reproductive rights, LGBTQ rights, racial equality, freedom of religion, and workers' rights.
More than a dozen women had accused Trump of sexual mis conduct.
The creator of the movement Harvey Weinstein, a prominent movie Tarana Burke and others lead the #MeToo Women's March in Los producer, of rape, sexual assault, and Angeles on November 12, 2017.
Women's rights and reproductive justice, health- care and immigration reform, racial justice, LGBTQ rights, and other issues were supported by demonstrators on the National Mall.
The largest coordinated protest in U.S. history took place in Washington and drew 5 million people.
Powerful men, politicians, CEOs, actors, sports stars, and celeb rities of all sorts were implicated in the scandal.
Many women and men came forward to share their own experiences of sexual assault, harassment, or rape under the # MeToo campaign.
The future of unconventional presidential action designed to end their alienation and nurture their bitterness was something that Trump's supporters were not very interested in.
Bush made a prediction about Trump.
Bush said that Donald was great at the one- liners.
He's a chaotic candidate.
He forged an unstable cabinet dominated by family members and wealthy loyalist ideologues, bank ers, businessmen, and billionaires, mostly older white men with little govern ment experience.
Steve Bannon, his chief strategist, and Stephen Miller, his senior policy adviser, were leaders of " alt- right" organizations that promoted white supremacy, anti- immigrant nativism, and America's first trade policies while rejecting multiculturalism.
Many of Trump's cabinet members and senior aides did not last long in their new jobs.
Michael Flynn, the president's national security adviser, was forced to resign after lying to the FBI and the vice president about his conversations with the Russian ambassador.
He failed to disclose huge payments from foreign companies linked to Russia and Turkey.
Flynn offered to testify to congressional committees in exchange for immunity from prosecution.
The FBI is investigating the possibility that people associated with the Trump campaign colluded with Russia to destroy Hilary Clinton's campaign.
Trump denied that his campaign staff colluded with Russian officials to help him win the election.
The White House press corps was strained in the early days of the Trump administration.
On June 1, President Trump announced that the U.S. would cease all participation in the Paris Climate Agreement.
He claimed that the agreement imposed grossly unfair environmental standards on American workers.
He vowed to support the people of the United States in their fight against the international deal.
Trump's withdrawal from the global climate agreement was his most sweeping assertion of an "America First" foreign policy.
Al Gore, the former vice president who has become an advocate for fighting climate change, said that removing the United States from the Paris agreement is reckless and indefensible.
There was a temporary ban on immigrants and refugees from seven nations with large Muslim populations.
There was immediate and widespread opposition to Trump's proposal.
Lawyers for various organizations filed suits to stop the executive order from taking effect as tens of thousands of Americans organized protests at airports across the nation.
The travel ban was dismissed by federal judges as unconstitutional.
Trump was angry at the ruling and promised to overturn it.
Trump tried to stop people from entering the United States from seven countries.
He issued a revised executive order on March 6, but it was opposed and rejected by federal judges.
Speaking for the majority, Chief Justice John Roberts acknowledged that the court had no view on the soundness of the policy, but insisted that the president had the authority to impose such a ban for national security reasons.
Trump's reversal of Barack Obama's decision to allow trans people to serve in the military was welcomed by the courts.
A crowd of protesters gathered at the Los Angeles International Airport to speak out against President Trump's executive order banning immigrants from certain Muslim-majority countries from entering the United States.
The new policy affecting some 15,000 personnel was opposed by many legislators and military leaders.
People who want to sacrifice for their country are being discriminated against.
The ban was delayed because of lawsuits.
The appointment of a conservative justice to the Supreme Court was Trump's greatest success.
Although most Democrats opposed the nomination of Neil Gorsuch, a fed eral court of appeals judge with a sterling reputation, the Republican majority revised the Senate filibuster rules to ensure his confirmation.
In July of last year, thousands of New Yorkers took to the streets of Time Square to oppose the ban on trans people in the military.
The "Resist" signs are decorated in the same color scheme as the Pride flag.
Justice Anthony Kennedy wants to have another conservative judge confirmed by the Senate.
Trump had to negotiate the passage of legisla tion to govern by issuing executive orders.
The AHCA was unveiled by him and House speaker Paul Ryan.
Medicaid subsidies that allowed people to gain coverage for the first time would have been removed.
Only 17 percent of voters liked the new bil.
The AHCA was withdrawn by the Republican leadership without a vote.
Speaker of the House Paul Ryan has a copy of the American Health Care Act.
The bill to replace the health care law was unpopular.
He admitted that he was surprised that health care could be so complicated.
It was difficult to implement Trump's pledge to build a huge wall along the Mexican border and force Mexico to pay for it.
The president acknowledged in April that he couldn't get Congress to finance the wal.
Congress approved limited funds for a small portion of the wall.
Trump diverted his efforts to federal enforcement.
He promised to triple the number of Immi gration and Customs Enforcement officers.
Donald Trump's early actions in foreign affairs were just as minimal as they were.
The president's view of America's role in the world remained the same as he hosted several foreign guests, talked tough toward Iran and North Korea, and launched cruise missiles at Syrian air bases in response to chemical attacks by the Syrian government on its own civilians.
When Syria used chemical weapons against its opponents, Trump urged President Obama not to attack the country.
He told the news service that we should not be focusing on Syria.
He didn't need to explain his change of heart.
By the end of his first 100 days in office, President Trump was a mess due to self inflicted wounds, contradictions, and his naive understanding of the political process.
His administration seemed overwhelmed at times.
Of the 556 executive branch positions requiring Senate con firmation, only a few dozen were filled by the summer of 2017.
By the end of April, Candidate Trump had promised ten pieces of legislation.
He had no major legislation to his credit and the lowest public approval rating of any first- term president.
She believed that Trump had overpromised and underdelivered.
It was never easy for the Trump administration.
In May of last year, the president fired James Comey, the FBI director, who was leading the agency's investigation into contacts between Trump campaign officials and Russia.
The White House initially claimed that Trump had acted on the advice of the deputy attorney general, only to have him change his mind the next day.
On the face of it, the revela tion suggested that the president may have engaged in obstruction of justice, a criminal offense.
The deputy attorney general, Rod Rosenstein, appointed a special counsel, Robert Muller III, after Jeff Sessions, the attorney general, decided to step down because of his contacts with Russian officials during the campaign.
A former FBI director held in high esteem by both Democrats and Republicans was asked to lead a criminal investigation into Russian involvement in the 2016 campaign.
Trump's response to the investigation was combative.
His administration was the victim of the greatest "witch hunt" in history.
The prospect of a lengthy criminal investigation shrouding the White House and playing havoc with his efforts to fulfill his campaign promises was what Trump faced.
The new president was challenged by the constant turnover in the senior administration.
Almost half of Trump's inner circle of aides and cabinet members resigned or were fired by the beginning of the year.
The departed included the secretary of state; the secretary of human services; the secretary of veterans affairs; the national security adviser and deputy national security adviser; the FBI director; the chief strategist; the chief of staff and deputy chief of staff; the chief economic adviser and the administrator of the mental
In eight months, Trump appointed six communications directors.
General John Kel y, Trump's second chief of staff, joked that "I did something wrong and God punished me, I guess," for leaving the Department of Homeland Security to run the White House staff.
President Trump achieved a major legislative victory with the passage of a comprehensive tax cut at the end of the year.
One of his primary campaign promises was a reduction in federal taxes.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act was passed by Congress without a single Democratic vote.
The corporate tax rate was cut from 35 percent to 21 percent in 1993.
The bill lowered income tax rates, doubled the standard deduction, and eliminated personal exemptions.
The individual mandate at the center of theAffordable Care Act was repealed.
13 million fewer people are expected to be covered by health insurance because of this.
More people would drop their coverage if there were fewer healthy adults in the pool.
The Congressional Budget Office estimated that the Trump tax cut would add over a trillion dollars to the national debt.
The tax cut was approved without any offsetting spending cuts because Republicans abandoned the importance of reducing the federal deficit.
Seven months after the tax cut was implemented, the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco announced that the legislation would likely cause less economic growth than anticipated because the economy was already robust.
Donald Trump was the most unique person to ever occupy the Oval Office.
While roiling financial markets, his disruptive behavior continued to entertain and perplex observers.
He lashed out at friends and enemies and was annoyed by leaks from his staff to the press.
In March of last year, Trump surprised his aides and fellow Republicans by announcing tariffs on imported steel and aluminum, which caused a backlash from America's most reliable trading partners.
Trump said that trade wars are good and easy to win.
The president was urged by over a hundred Republicans in the House of Representatives to reconsider launching a trade war.
President Trump angered America's western European allies when he announced that the U.S. would withdraw from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action with Iran.
It was Trump's most consequential foreign policy action, since the United Nations had verified that Iran was following the agreement.