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12.7 Clinical Uses of Sound
Bats have to be captured and examined in order to get baseline data.
In one study, the social call of a rare Bechstein's bat was used to lure bats into the net.
The Mediterranean fruit fly is a pest that can cause $1 billion in damage worldwide.
The most common way of controlling the medfly is spraying pesticides.
A more friendly way of controlling the pest has been sought for a long time.
Sound traps may be an alternative.
The medfly's wings produce a sound at a fundamental Frequency of 350 hertz accompanied by complex Harmonics.
Female medflys are attracted to this call and can be lured into a trap.
Body sounds can be analysed with a stethoscope.
A hollow flexible tube is attached to a bell-shaped instrument.
The bell is placed on the skin to amplify the sound of the body.
The sound is then transmitted to the examiner's ears to evaluate the functioning of the organ.
Two bells are placed on different parts of the body in a modified version of the stethoscope.
The sound from one bell is picked up by one ear, and the sound from the other bell is picked up by the other.
The two sounds are compared.
It is possible to listen to the heartbeats of the fetus and the pregnant mother at the same time.
It is possible to produce waves up to millions of cycles per second with special electronically driven crystals.
Ultrasonic waves are absorbed by tissue.
It is possible to examine structures within living organisms with X-rays.
Ultrasonic methods can show motion in some cases, such as in the examination of a fetus and the heart.
The relative motion between the source and the observer affects the sound's frequencies.
The minus sign is used when the source is approaching the observer, and the plus sign is used when the source is not moving.
It is possible to measure motions within a body.
The sound is altered by the effect of the wind.
The velocity of blood flow can be obtained by comparing the incident and scattered frequencies.
The mechanical energy in the wave goes to heat within the tissue.
Ultrasonic energy can be used to heat parts of a patient's body more efficiently and evenly than can be done with conventional heat lamps.
It is possible to destroy tissue with high-intensity sound waves.
lithotripsy is a type of stone that can be destroyed with the use of sputum.
The intensity of a sound produced by a point source decreases as the square of the distance from the source increases.
Consider a riveter as a point source of sound and assume that the intensities listed in Table 12.1 are measured at a distance 1 m away from the source.
Discuss the limitations on the size of the object that a bat can detect with its echo location.
Estimate the lower limit on the size of objects that can be detected with the sound of a sonic boom.
Explain the Doppler effect with the help of a basic physics textbook.
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