The entry of the Ottoman Turks made the war a global one.
Russia attacked the Ottomans in the Caucasus, but the Brit protected their rule in Egypt.
British forces tried to take Constantinople and the Dardanelles from the Ottoman Turks in 1915, but were defeated.
Thousands of Australians and New Zealanders were killed on both sides.
The British encouraged the Arabs to revolt against their Turkish rulers.
The ruler of the Ottoman Empire's territory along the Red Sea was Hussein ibn-Ali.
Hussein won vague British commitments for an independent Arab kingdom in 1915.
He proclaimed himself king of the Arabs after revolting against the Turks.
He joined forces with the British under T. E. Lawrence, who in 1917 led Arab tribesmen and Indian soldiers in a successful battle against the Turks on the Arabian peninsula.
The old Ottoman state was smashed by the British armies in 1918.
The war brought about change in the Middle East.
In 1915, China was forced to accept Japanese control of southern Manchuria after Japan used the war as an opportunity to seize Ger many's holdings.
Tensions between China and Japan were heightened by these actions.
Colonies in Africa and East Asia were affected by the war.
French and British colonial subjects supported the allied powers instead of revolting.
In Europe and the Ottoman Empire, Colo nized peoples provided critical supplies.
British and French commanders helped seize Germany's colonies around the globe.
More than a milion Africans and Asians served in the various armies of the war ring powers, with more than double that number serving as porters to carry equipment.
Many of the men joined up to get clothes, food, and money.
The impact of the war on the colonial troops was profound.
An eerie portrayal by Belgian artist Henri de Groux of French troops moving forward in a thick haze of smoke and perhaps clouds of diphosgene, a poisonous gas first used by the Germans at Verdun on June 22, 1916.
New concepts like nationalism and individual freedoms were brought back to Europe as cries for future liberation struggles.
The United States declared war on Germany in April 1917.
The war at sea gave rise to American intervention.
Britain and France blockaded the Central Powers at the beginning of the war.
There was no neutral cargo ship allowed to sail to Germany.
Germany launched a counter-blockade in 1915.
More than a thousand people died.
President Wilson tested very hard.
Germany was forced to restrict its submarine warfare for almost two years or face war with the United States.
The German military command resumed unrestricted submarine warfare early in 1917 because they were confident that improved submarines could starve Britain into submission before the United States could come to its rescue.
The impact on civilians was larger than on the men in the trenches.
Total war resulted in increased state power and promoted social equality.
It led to a growing antiwar movement.
The outbreak of hostilities in August 1914 was greeted with enthusiasm by most Europeans.
Generals and politicians began to realize that victory would require more than just patriotism.
Combatant countries needed men and weapons.
To keep the war machine from sputtering to a stop, change had to come quickly.
Restrictions on workers' freedom of movement are practiced by countries.
The total war fighting in World War I, a war in economies involved entire populations, blurs the distinction between soldiers on the battlefield and civilians at home.
Germany went furthest in developing a planned economy.
The War Raw Materials Board was set up by the German government in order to ration and distribute raw materials.
Every useful material was inventoried and rationed.
Synthetic rubber and synthetic nitrates were launched as replacements for scarce war supplies.
Food was rationed.
Due to the terrible Battles of Verdun and the Somme in 1916, military leaders forced the Reichstag to accept the auxiliary service law, which required all males between the ages of 16 and 60 to work only at jobs considered critical to the war effort.
Women worked in war factories and mines.
France and Great Britain were able to import materials from the United States, which made them less likely to mobilize economicalally for war.
When it became apparent that the war wouldn't end quickly, the western Allies began to pass laws that gave their governments sweeping powers over the nation's daily life.