ChAPTER 32 -- Part 1: Russia and Japan: Industrialization
In 1899, he said it when he compared the two.
The relationship between education and other aspects of Japanese development is shown in the latest in naval technology.
According to Fukuzawa, the problem in Japanese education was Confucianism.
He believed that the Confucian tradition valued science and mathematics more than other traditions.
Conservatives in Japan were offended by this enthusiasm for Western education.
Fukuzawa, a member of the elite and family friend of the conservatives, was sensitive to their criticism.
He worried that he wasn't being faithful to the memory of his parents, who were Confucianists.
At a young age, he jumped into Western studies and didn't know much about Confucianism.
Fukuzawa's dilemma was a common one for reformers, trying to prompt real change in a Western direction without offending traditionalists and without wanting to become fully Western.
Fukuzawa was bent but didn't break in his zeal.
The chapter deals with two nations that were not part of the Western domination of the 19th century.
Russia and Japan launched significant programs of industrialization and made other changes to strengthen their political and social systems by 1900.
Russia and Japan were different from China and the Middle East in the 19th century.
Before the 1960s, theirs was the only society outside the West to begin a wholesale process of industrialization.
Russia enhanced its power in world affairs, while Japan pulled away from other Asian societies.
During the West's century of power, Russia and Japan were able to maintain economic and political independence because of their similarities.
Japan from China, Russia from Byzantium and then the West were all examples of imitation.
They knew that learning from outsiders could be profitable.
The Tokugawa shogunate and the tsarist empire improved their political effectiveness during the 17th and 18th centuries.
Both nations could use the state to sponsor changes that had rested in part with private businesses.
Change took different directions in each society.
Russia's road to industrialization was marked by political oppression and harsh conditions for workers that undermined social stability.
Japan's long experience with cultural adaptation in the face of change helped it manage the transition from a feudal to an industrial society.
The growing roles of global capitalism and the new forms of integration of capital and labor are illustrated by Industrialization outside the West.
The Russian rulers sought ways to protect their country from the effects of the French Revolution, which began in 1861.
The idea that Western policies might help the serfs.
The 1812 invasion of Russia by Napoleon led to a new concern.
The move toward renewed isolation was supported by conservative intellectuals.
The system of serfdom provided ignorant peasants with the guidance and protection of paternalistic masters.
Russia before reform was the Dawn of the Industrial Age.
In order to resist Napoleon's pressure, the government introduced some improvements to bureaucratic training.
Russia, Prussia, and Austria would join forces to defend the established order.
Although the alliance itself accomplished little, the idea of Russia as a bastion of sanity in a Europe gone mad was appealing.
Some important new tensions were produced by defending the status quo.
Intellectuals were fascinated with Western progress.
Western cultural styles were the focus of others.
Russia began to contribute to Europe's cultural output in the 19th century.
The poet Pushkin, descended from an African slave, used romantic styles to celebrate the beauty of the Russian soul and the tragic dignity of the common people.
The romantic style took root in eastern Europe because of its compatibility with folklore and a sense of nationalism.
Russian musical composers would use folk themes and sentimentality in their compositions.
Russia's ruling elite continued to welcome Western artistic styles and took great pride in Russia's growing cultural respectability, but they began to censor intellectuals who tried to offend liberal or radical political values.
The new tsar, Nicholas I, is still more adamant in his conservatism.
The political uprising, urging reform of tsarist autocracy, showed that liberal values had spread to elements of revolt in Russia, but its failure was more significant.
Middle-level army officers were stiffened by the suppression of political opponents.
Newspapers and schools were put down by tightly supervised reforms.
There was a lot of political criticism in exile.
The wave of revolutions that spread through Europe in 1830 and in 1848 were largely avoided by Russia.
In 1849, Russia helped Austria put down the nationalist revolution in Hungary, which was a blow to the monarchy.