The pastoral nomads, who provided pack animals, were integrated into the region's economy because of the abundant coinage.
The manufacture of cloth, metal goods, and pottery was encouraged by trade.
Science and technology flourished.
Building on Hellenistic traditions and their own observations and experience, Muslim doctors and astronomer developed skills and theories far in advance of their European counterparts.
He found out that the sun and moon appear larger on the horizon than overhead, that light travels from a seen object to the eye, and that the Milky Way lies far beyond earth's atmosphere.
The rules for slaves govern him.
There is no difference between the two people once that task is completed.
We have never seen an important person have with him at the moment of an attack everything he needs for himself, his weapons, his mount, and equipment for secretary's work.
Secretaries are required to be loyal.
His endurance is amazing for long rides.
There are long night trips and crossing a land.
He is sorely tried because of the tions imposed on him.
The secretary has no right to set any of those conditions because he is more skilled than the vet.
He should mount what he wants.
He bred it and raised it as he was thought to be slow at the first lapse.
If he called and galloped behind him, it followed him.
When he galloped, a slave was entitled.
The life of the Turk can be summed up by the many complaints against his master.
If he wants, he can request his days be longer on the back of his sale.
The secretary can't mount on the face of the earth.
Women rarely traveled.
People who lived in rural areas tended animals.
Urban women, particularly members of the elite, lived in seclusion and did not leave their homes without covering themselves.
In the past, women were not allowed to wear veils in public.
These practices became a fixture of Muslim social life through the interpretation of the Quran.
Although women sometimes became literate and studied with relatives, they did so away from the gaze of unrelated men, and while they played influential roles within the family, public roles were generally barred.
Slave women were not allowed to perform before unrelated men.
A man could marry as many as four wives and have sexual relations with as many slave concubines as he wanted.
Christian and Jewish women did not fare as well under Islamic law.
He hunts wild animals if he can't hunt people.
He bleeds one of his tists, or escapes from chains, if he practices as a quack den unsuccessful in that or needs sustenance.
He milks one of his horses if he's thirsty.
He mounts another without touching to draw off rings if he wants the one who uses almost invisible silk thread to rest under him.
Those who claim to be refugees would not be opposed to eating meat.
The Byzantine frontier regions have stubble, grass, and shrubs.
He doesn't shade it because he left behind captive families.
The Turk is a herdsman, groom, trainer, trader, veterinar the passers-by with his urine, or who farts in the mosque ian.
A single Turk is a nation.
Our number is the feigned madman and mad woman, with metal charms strung from their neck.
The ones with ornaments that droop from their ears have leather or brass around their neck.
The people with false bandages round their heads and sickly faces, and the one who mimicked a festering internal wound.
The one who claims to have been Hutchins slashed himself.
Permission was granted by Peter Lang Publishing.
It was their private property to keep or sell.
The financial burden of supporting a family was put on the husband, who could not legally force his wife to help out.
If their husbands divorced them, women could remarry and get a cash pay ment.
A woman could initiate divorce under certain conditions if she wanted to.
Their testimony counted as half that of a man.
They could go on a pilgrimage.
There is a misogynistic tone in some Islamic writings.
"I was raised up to heaven and saw that most of its denizens were poor people; I was raised into the hellfire and saw that most of its denizens were women," said the Prophet.
Two episodes show how Muslim men appraise women in society.
When Muhammad died, he lived for fifty years.
Muslim scientists used sophisticated chemical processes to make a wide range of goods, including glazes for pottery, rosewater, hard soap, gunpowder, and various types of glass.
The Mus ctio lim taste for geometric design is reflected in the scratched decoration.
Her status as Muhammad's favorite was the only virgin he married and the only wife to see the angel Gabriel.
A'isha was an abundant source of hadith.
She became separated from a caravan and rejoined it only after traveling through the night with a man who found her alone in the desert.
Gossips accused her of lying to the Prophet, but a revelation from God proved her innocence.
The Battle of the Camel was fought to derail Ali's caliphate.
The two episodes that came to epitomize what Muslim men feared most about women were sexual infidelity and politics.
Even though Muhammad's first wife, Khadija, and his daughter, Ali's wife Fatima, were both ideal women, A'isha's position as Muhammad's favorite was not emphasized in the earliest literature.
Both appear to be normal wives and mothers.
As the seclusion of women became commonplace in urban Muslim society, some writers extolled homosexual relationships, partly because a male lover could appear in public or go on a journey.
One ruler wrote a book to encourage his son to share his affections with both men and women, despite Islam's opposition to homosexuality.
The ruler and his slave-boy were models of perfect love.
Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians were not allowed to be enslaved by Muslims because they revered holy books.
Being enslaved as a prisoner of war meant that many women were captured in the camps of defeated armies.
There was a constant flow of slaves into Islamic territory from Africa and Central Asia.
A hereditary slave society did not develop.
Many slaves were freed as an act of piety after they were converted to Islam.
The offspring of slave women and Muslim men were free.
One of the most universal cultural characteristics is covering the head.
There are 6 examples from every part of the world.
6 does today.
Each land had its own royal headdress.
The man standing before a governor in a 13th-century miniature painting has a skull cap that indicates pre-Columbian times and his low social status.
A high, conical ban is built into some societies.
The folds and tails of turbans signify the place of origin for Sasanid Iran and the Ottoman Empire.
Men from western Afghanistan wear turbans with long tails while men from eastern Afghanistan wear turbans that are loose and colorful.
The social rank of the woman's husband is more important than her gion in reli.
Men in orthodox Judaism wear hats.
In Islam, head coverings for women, abandonment of both men's and women's hats in the second borrowed from pre-Islamic practice in the Middle East, have half of the twentieth century marked as a major turning point in become politically controversial in recent years.
The hat-making of the twentieth century was considered improper by many around the world.
A Muslim man should not go to China.
It's difficult to deter in Egypt, India, France, or Brazil because they all have slaves who look at the poor in society.
It could mean that they have something on their heads.
The heads of government want to be seen as humble.
Buddhist monks and nuns, as well as certain Sufis in the Muslim vative religious groups, had their heads shaved clean.
Military, police, construction, ath monks and priests shaved the crown of their heads in the letics are some of the occupations that early Christian indicate.
There are no known reasons for the change.
The decline of aristocracy and the spread of democracy may have contributed to the front of the head.
Hats have become equally uncommon in dictatorships, even though head shaving did not always sig it.
Japanese samurai, or warriors, shaved the A more likely cause is the worldwide role of news photographs, front of their heads.
Europe and the United States tend to take Western customs as styles, sometimes showing greater diversity than those for men.
People feel pressure to switch to Western high status mix with men on public occasions.
A magnificent styles, including bareheadedness, to fit into the image of the wig, hat, or coiffure under these circumstances might speak modern world.
Women in their own quarters, without men present, wore whatever clothes and jewels they liked.
There is a woman with her hands in the middle.
The woman on the left is probably a slave.
The unity of the umma was the political expression of the caliphate.
The process of conversion was not directed by a hierarchy.
There were a lot of local Islamic communities that were disconnected from each other.
The caliphate's importance waned (see Map 9.2).
The problem of decentralization was made worse by the appearance of rival caliphates.
The new * Women enjoyed relatively high status under Islamic law, developments came from the fact that urban women tended to live in seclusion.
The flow of Iranians to the Arab was centered on Islam on the madrasa and con lands and the rise of Sufism.
Between 800 and 1400, woodblocks and tin plates were used for printing in Islamic lands.
The prints were rolled and worn around the neck.
Many prints came from Banu Sasan con men.
It's not known why block-printing had so little effect on society.
immi grant scholars were well-received because they were fully versed in Arabic and Persian.
Iran's urban centers have a view of religion that they brought with them.
The early Sufis were given to ecstatic and poetic utterances.
The growth of brotherhoods, a less ecstatic form of Sufism, set a tone for society in general.
Most Muslim men in the cities belong to at least one brotherhood.
Every limb has its own ethics.
One shouldn't listen to indecencies.
It is possible to have an estate or rely on a regular income.
The Sufis' rule in this matter is that one should not use all of it for himself, but should dedicate it to public charities and take the rest for himself and his family.
One can watch all kinds of amusement.
Local shrines and pilgrimages to the tombs of Muhammad's descendants became popular.
The end of the Abbasid Caliphate gave renewed importance to the annual pilgrimage and made Mecca an important center of madrasa education.
The empire that ruled Iran and Iraq from the third to the seventh century was very similar to the Roman empire that ruled from Constantinople.
The ruler and the dominant religion in both states were Zoroastrianism.
The citizens came to think of themselves as members of a faith community rather than being subjects of a ruler.
This gave rise to conflict among religious sects and also raised the possibility of the founder of a new religion commanding both political and religious loyalty on an unprecedented scale.
In the seventh century, this possibility was realized in the career of the prophet Muhammad.
Islam ended the trend of identity based on religion.
All Muslims in a universal community embraced enormous diversity of language, appearance, and social custom.
By the twelfth century a religious scholar could travel anywhere in the Islamic world and blend easily into the local Muslim community.
By the ninth century, the forces of conversion and urbanization fostered social and religious experimentation in urban settings.
Political disruption and the spread of pastoral nomadism slowed the early economic and technological dynamism.