The governor of Arkansas defeated the president in 1992.
He pushed through a tax increase, an economicStimulus package, welfare reform, a raise in the minimum wage, and improved public access to health insurance in his first term.
The Dayton Accords were negotiated by his administration.
After his re- election in 1996, he was involved in two high- profile scandals: his investment in the fraudulent Whitewater Development Corporation and his sexual affair with a White House intern.
Congress voted on whether or not to start an impeachment inquiry after his attempt to cover up the affair.
The Senate found Clinton not guilty after the House voted to impeach him.
In the 2008 presidential election, Hil ary Clinton was the front- runner for the Democratic nomination, which made her the first woman with a serious chance to win the presidency.
The Internet- based campaign of Senator Barack Obama earned him enough delegates to win the nomination.
She was appointed secretary of state after Obama became president.
Clinton won the Democratic nomination for the presidency.
She lost the election because she won the popular vote.
Sailing ships that were favored over older merchant ships for their speed but lacked cargo space eventually gave way to steamships.
The colonies were required to pay for the Boston Tea Party's damages, as well as a military government, disal owed colonial trials of British soldiers, and the quartering of troops in private homes.
Irish immigrants had to travel across the Atlantic for six weeks to get to America.
There is a state of political and ideological conflict between nations, primarily the United States, representing western- democratic nations, and the Soviet Union, representing Marxist- communist nations.
The Italian sailor persuaded King Ferdinad and Queen Isabel of Spain to fund his expedition across the Atlantic to discover a new trade route to Asia.
He reached the Bahamas in 1492.
The FBI director was fired by the president.
During the First World War, the committee tried to weaken the enemy's spirits by producing propaganda that conveyed the Al ies' war aims to Americans.
Nixon's administration engaged in a number of immoral acts, such as attempting to steal information and accusing political appointments of sexual improprieties.
These acts were funded by money.
Thomas Paine wrote a pamphlet attacking British principles of hereditary rule and monarchical government and advocated a declaration of American independence.
A package of five billion dollars was presented to Congress by Henry Clay in order to reduce tensions between North and South over the status of slavery.
The winner of the 1876 presidential election was declared in exchange for the withdrawal of federal troops from the South, marking the end of Reconstruction.
Between 1860 and 1880, the mine in eastern Nevada yielded almost $1 billion worth of gold and silver.
The large horse- drawn wagons were used to carry people from the East to the western frontier settlements.
The Military Reconstruction Act, the Command of the Army Act, and the Tenure of Office Act were all passed by Radical Republicans.
The Spanish term for "conquerors" was applied to Spanish and Portuguese soldiers who conquered lands in central and southern America as wel as the states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California.
A society in which mass production and consumption of national products affects a lot of social life and status.
The U.S. cold war strategy sought to prevent global Soviet expansion and influence through political, economic, and military pressure.
General George Washington commanded the army that was authorized by the Continental Congress to fight the British.
More of a campaign tactic than a practical program, few of its proposed items became law.
Slaves who lived in areas of the Confederacy under Union control sought refuge in Union military camps.
The Reagan administration ordered the CIA to help the anti-Contras.
They were fighting the Sandinista government.
The State Department believed that the Sandinista government was supplying the Salvadoran rebels with Soviet and Cuban arms.
The Sandinistas and theContras signed a cease- fire agreement in 1988.
Calvin Coolidge assumed the presidency after President Harding's death.
Coolidge believed that the nation's welfare was tied to the success of Big Business, and he worked to end government regulation of business and industry as a way to reduce taxes.
He focused on the nation's industrial development.
Democrats in northern states who opposed the Civil War and argued for an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates were called "Copperheads" by the Republicans.
The precedent for other plundering conquistadores was set by the Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztec Empire.
He was in charge of British troops during the Revolutionary War.
The Revolutionary War ended when he surrendered to George Washington.
The group of men went from Missouri to Oregon on an expedition led by Lewis and Clark.
They kept detailed journals and drew maps as they traveled.
The United States gained a claim to the Oregon country by right of discovery and exploration after their reports attracted traders and trappers to the region.
In exchange for Clay being named secretary of state, John Quincy Adams secured his victory over Andrew Jackson in the 1824 election.
The most valuable cash crop driving the economy in the United States and Great Britain during the 19th century was cotton.
The mass production of cotton in the 19th century was enabled by Eli Whitney's invention of a hand-operated machine that quickly removed cotton seeds.
The cotton- producing region relied mostly on slave labor and spanned from North Carolina west to Louisiana and as far north as southern Illinois.
Unorganized youth rebel against mainstream institutions, values, and behavior that more often focused on cultural rather than political activism.
Roosevelt tried to increase the number of Supreme Court justices from nine to fifteen in order to save his Second New Deal programs.
The Puritans believed that true Christians could enter a voluntary union for the common worship of God.
One step further, the union could be used to establish governments.
Credit system used by sharecroppers and share tenants who pledged a portion of their future crop to local merchants or land owners in exchange for farming supplies and food
The issue of using gold or silver to back American currency was a point of contention in the 1896 election.
Bryan won the nomination to be their presidential candidate because of the "Cross of Gold" speech he delivered at the Democratic convention.
The Democrats walked out of the convention and nominated their own candidate.
The closest the world has come to a nuclear war was in 1962, when the U.S. and Soviet Union were in a standoff.
Women were encouraged to celebrate their role as manager of the household and nurturer of the children in the 19th century.
He was a Lieutenant Colonel in the U.S. Army who fought in the Great Sioux War.
He and his soldiers were wiped out in the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876.
Federal legislation divided ancestral Native American lands among the heads of each Indian family in an attempt to "Americanize" Indians by forcing them to become farmers.
June 6, 1944, when an Al ied amphibious assault landed on the Normandy coast and established a foothold in Europe from which Hitler's defenses could not recover.
During the Civil War, he was the president of the Confederacy.
He refused to surrender when the Confederacy was defeated.
He was captured in May of that year.
A Catholic missionary advocated for better treatment for Indians.
The founder of the American Railway Union organized against the Pul man Palace Car Company during the Pullman strike.
The Social Democratic party eventually became the Socialist Party of America.
He received more than one million votes in the 1912 presidential election for the Socialist party.
On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted a formal statement drafted by Thomas Jefferson that announced the break with Great Britain.
The document was based on the Declaration of Independence and was signed by delegates from the convention.
Reason, morality, and natural law were emphasized in Enlightenment thought, instead of the ever-present God.
During the Nixon administration, relations between the United States and Communist nations improved.
On April 30, 1898, Commodore George Dewey's smal U.S. naval squadron defeated the Spanish warships in Manila Bay.
In the United States, expansionist fervor was aroused by this victory.
He is a philosopher.
The new premier of South Vietnam was forced on the emperor by the French and American support.
Diem's police and army were trained by President Eisenhower.
The United States expected Diem to distribute land to the peasants.
He suppressed his political opponents, did little or no land distribution, and let corruption grow.
He refused to participate in elections to reunify Vietnam.
He declared himself president after ousting the emperor.
State banks became dependent on federal funds due to the law requiring the distribution of the budget surplus to the states.
She was an important figure in raising the public's awareness of mental illness.
She presented her findings after a two year investigation of the treatment of the mentally ill in Massachusetts.
She convinced twenty states to reform their treatment of the mentally ill.
A group of southern Democrats defected from the national Democratic party in 1948 to protest the party's support of civil rights and the nomination of segregationist candidates for office.
The group of migrants were trapped in the Sierra Nevadas in the winter of 1846-1847 and had to resort to cannibalism to survive.
The Kansas- Nebraska Act was authored by him as a senator.
He engaged Lincoln in a series of public debates about slavery in the territories.
The debates gave Lincoln a national reputation even though Douglas won the election.
He became an eloquent speaker and writer after escaping from slavery.
The stock market soared to new heights in the late 1990s despite the predictions of experts that the economy could not sustain such a performance.
The economic success was based on dot- com enterprises, which were firms specializing in computers, software, telecommunications, and the internet.
Many of the companies' stock market values were driven by speculation rather than financial success.
The stock market bubble burst.
The Supreme Court ruled that slaves were not U.S. citizens and that Congress could not prohibit slavery in the western territories.
Washington's views on civil rights were criticized by him.
He advocated "ceaseless agitation" for civil rights and the immediate end to segregation.
He promoted an education for African Americans that would give them a fighting chance in politics.
The strategy of deterrence was introduced by President Eisenhower's secretary of state.
He believed in using brinkmanship to stop communism.
It led to the United States' involvement in Vietnam.
The area of the Midwest where windstorms blew away millions of tons of top- soil from thirsty farmland in the 1930s caused great social distress and a massive migration of farm families.
The Atlantic seaboard used to be dominated by various Native American peoples.
The daughter of a tavern owner was the wife of the secretary of war.
Apparently her first husband committed suicide after learning that she was having an affair.
The wives of members of Jackson's cabinet snubbed her because of her lowly origins and past.
The Office of Economic Opportunity was created by the "War on Poverty" legislation.
An important figure in the Great Awakening was a New England minister who started a religious revival in his church.
The election of Thomas Jefferson and John Adams as president resulted in the first victory for the Republican party.
Jackson's victory was the result of a bitter presidential contest between Jackson and Adams.
The reelection campaign of Abraham Lincoln was successful because of the Union military successes in Georgia.
The 1912 presidential election featured four candidates: Wilson, Roosevelt, and Debs.
The basic assumptions of progressive politics were believed by each candidate, but they differed on how progressive ideals should be implemented through policy.
Wilson emerged as the winner after Roosevelt split the Republican party votes.
The protestant daughter of Henry VIII, she was Queen of England from 1558-1603.
The doctrine and services of the Church of England were defined during her long reign.
He was elected president in 1952 because of his popularity as a war hero and his promises to clean up Washington.
His administration wanted to cut the nation's domestic programs and budget, end the fighting in Korea, and institutionalized the policies of containment and deterrence.
The Eisenhower doctrine promised to aid any nation against Communism.
Most European immigrants to America were processed at the reception center in New York Harbor.
The 500,000 slaves in the four border states that remained in the Union were not freed by the military order issued by President Abraham Lincoln.
In order to protect them from British and French attacks, American ships are not leaving for foreign ports.
The ban on American exports hurt the U.S. economy.
He wrote poems, essays, and speeches about the sacredness of nature, optimism, self- reliance, and the unlimited potential of the individual.
He wanted to overcome the limitations of rationalism to reach the inner self.
A revolution in thought began in Europe in the 17th century that emphasized reason and science over the authority of traditional religion.
Tobacco and cotton could only be shipped to England or other English colonies according to the navigation act.
Nixon created a federal environmental agency to appease congressional Democrats.
The most important and profitable part of the barge canals of the 1820s and 1830s was from Buffalo to Albany, New York, connecting the Great Lakes to the East Coast and making New York City the nation's largest port.
The term "systematic removal of an ethnic group from a territory through violence or intimidation in order to create a homogenous society" was popularized by the Yugoslav policy targeting Albanian Muslims in Kosovo.
African Americans migrated west from the South in search of a haven from racism and poverty.
Most of President Truman's proposals to build upon the New Deal were rejected by Congress.
The FEPC was created by an executive order in 1941 to eliminate racial discrimination in jobs and was a step towards civil rights for African Americans.
If one country joined communism, its neighbors would follow suit.
Similar to the Granger movement, these organizations sought to address the issues of smal farming communities, however Al iances emphasized more political action and called for the creation of a Third Party to advocate their concerns.
In Italy and Germany in the 1920s, a dictator used propaganda and brute force to seize control of national life.
The largest federal project in U.S. history was the creation of a national network of interstate highways.
Deposits in citizens' savings accounts are guaranteed by an independent government agency.
Legislation was passed by Congress to create a new national banking system in order to regulate the nation's currency supply and ensure the stability and integrity of member banks who made up the Federal Reserve System across the nation.
The Bureau of Corporations was replaced by an independent agency that was even more powerful to fight unfair trade practices and monopolies.
During the Great Depression, this project gave writers such as Saul Bel ow, Richard Wright, and Ralph El ison employment and a chance to develop as artists.
The national government has authority over the states.
Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay wrote essays in support of the proposed U.S. Constitution.
Proponents of a centralized federal system.
The majority of the Federalists supported a broad interpretation of the Constitution whenever national interest dictated it.
Alexander Hamilton and John Jay were notable Federalists.
Walter Mondale chose her as his running mate in the 1984 presidential election.
She was the first woman to be a vice president nominee for a major political party.
She was put on the defensive because of her husband's business dealings.
Slaves who worked in the cotton or cane fields were part of organized work gangs.
Before they could be readmitted to the Union, former Confederate states had to approve the amendment.
The murder of 6 milion Jews by the Nazi party is not limited to gypsies, homosexuals, and handicap individuals.
The first term of Franklin D. Roosevelt's economic and social programs was designed to fight the Great Depression.
The arrest without warrants of thousands of suspected radicals, most of whom were deported, was part of an outbreak of anti- Communist hysteria.
Young women of the 1920s who rebelled against prewar standards of femininity included wearing shorter dresses, bobbing their hair, dancing to jazz music, driving cars, smoking cigarettes, and drinking and gambling.
After America's entry into World War I, the economy of the home front needed to be reorganized to provide the most efficient means of conducting the war.
The Food Administration was involved.
Herbert Hoover sought to increase agricultural production while decreasing civilian consumption of food.
The Nul ification Crisis in South Carolina sparked legislation that authorized the president's use of the army to force states to comply with federal law.
After Spiro Agnew's resignation, he was appointed to the vice presidency by President Nixon, and assumed the presidency after Nixon's resignation.
The American economy went into the deepest recession since the Great Depression because he resisted congressional pressure to increase federal spending.
Nixon's foreign policy goals were continued by Kissinger as Ford's secretary of state.
He was criticized because of the col apse of South Vietnam.
The Plains Indians were restricted from using the Overland Trail.
George Washington built a fort after attacking a group of French soldiers.
Washington surrendered to them after a long battle.
The French and Indian War was sparked by this conflict.
The first battle of the Civil War took place on April 14, 1861, when the federal fort in Charleston was captured by the Confederates.
The first of several years of large scale migration was in 1849 after the discovery of gold.
After the First World War, President Wilson proposed a plan for a "league of nations" to keep the peace.
Over the next fifty years, Franciscan missioners established a chain of missions from San Diego to San Francisco.
The friars wanted to convert Indians to Catholicism and make them part of the Spanish empire.
The Indians were stripped of their native heritage by the friars.
Franklin, who was born in Boston, epitomized the Enlightenment for many Americans and Europeans.
He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, a minister to France during the Revolutionary War, and contributed to the writing of the Declaration of Independence.
The expansion of slavery into the new western territories was opposed by a political coalition.
The legal rights of former slaves were protected by a Reconstruction agency established in 1865.
Activists traveled by bus through the South to test federal court rulings that banned segregation on buses and trains.
He helped inspire Americans in California to rebel against the Mexican government and declare independence.
England and France fought four wars for control of North America east of the Mississippi River.
France was transformed into an unstable republic before Napoleon Bonaparte assumed power.
He believed that human behavior was driven by unconscious and irrational forces.
His ideas were discussed more openly in America by the 1920s.
There was a religious revival movement in frontier churches in western territories and states in the early 19th century.
The Compromise of 1850 allowed federal officials to help capture and return escaped slaves to their owners without trial.
The American Anti- Slavery Society was founded by Arthur and Lewis Tappan.
He and his followers believed that America had been corrupted and needed a wide range of reforms.
He was the spokesman for Negro Nationalism, which promoted blackness, black cultural expression, and black exclusiveness.
He called on African Americans to liberate themselves from the white culture and start their own businesses.
The Universal Negro Improvement Association was founded by him.
As the ambassador to the United States from the new French Republic, he enlisted American privateers to attack British ships and plotted with frontiersmen and land speculators to attack Spanish Florida and Louisiana.
The French Revolution lost support in the US due to his actions and the French radicals excessive actions against their enemies.
The accords ended French colonial rule in the area.
Vietnam was divided along the 17th paral el until an election in 1956 reunified the country.
The battle in southern Pennsylvania is considered to be a turning point in the war, as Union forces defeated a second Confederate invasion of the North.
A spiritual and political movement among Native Americans that performed a ceremonial "ghost dance" intended to connect the living with the dead and make the Indians bulletproof in battles to restore their homelands.
Unemployment, education, and financial benefits are provided for World War II veterans.
The federal government has the power to regulate interstate commerce.
He was the leader of the Republican insurgency in Congress in the mid 1990s.
The Contract with America was created by him along with other Republican congressmen.
Many of the program's bil s were not passed by Congress.
The popular name for the period from the end of the Civil War to the turn of the century was Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner's 1873 novel.
The word "openness" was used to describe the easing of censorship in the Soviet Union.
The internet helped transform the world economy by creating an international marketplace for goods and services.
Multinational companies and the Americanization of foreign consumer cultures have led to companies like McDonald's and Starbucks appearing in major cities of the world.
The English aristocracy overthrew King James II and instated Wil iam of Orange and Mary, his English wife, to the British throne.