ChAPTER 24 -- Part 10: Africa and the Africans in the Age of
The english and French cultural elements of African religious ideas and practices are still present.
The amount of continuity was dependent on the intensity and Caribbean islands.
In the Americas, African zil had to adapt and incorporate other African peoples' ideas and customs into their own lives.
The ways and customs of the masters were imposed.
African religious ideas and American culture were adapted to a new reality.
During the 17th century, slaves were converted to Catholicism in Brazil and sometimes in Africa.
They joined Protestant denominations in North America and the British Caribbean.
The African plantation colony on the coast of religious ideas and practices did not die out.
African religious practices and the men and women knowledgeable in them were held in high regard by the community in the 18th century.
The reality of the Middle Passage made it easier to transfer religious ideas.
African reli gions were changed by contact with other African people as well as with colonial society, without religious specialists or a priestly class.
In many cases, slaves tried to reconcile their African beliefs with their new faith in Christianity.
This was more difficult for Muslim Africans.
The largest slave rebellion in Brazil in 1835 was organized by Muslim Yoruba and Hausa slaves and was directed against the whites and against nonbelievers.
Resistance and rebellion were not the only aspects of African American history.
Where slaves were held, recalci trance, running away, and direct confrontation were present.
African runaways disrupted communications on Hispaniola and a plot to rebel was uncovered in Mexico City.
Runaway slaves formed communities throughout the Americas.
Runaway communities were common in Jamaica, Venezuela, Haiti, and Brazil.
Maroons in Jamaica gained some independence and a recognition of their freedom.
In the 18th century, so-called ethnic slave rebellions were common in the Caribbean and Brazil.
Reinforcement from the slave trade was important in North America, but it was not based on African origins or ethnicities.
There, large numbers of slaves ran off in the 18th century and were hunted down by various expeditions in the rain forest.
The captured were brutally executed.
About 50,000 Maroon descendants still live in French Guiana.
New forms of kinship relations and religious beliefs were drawn from European and American Indian contacts.
The Maroons created a culture that was truly Afro-American.
Many aspects of African culture have been changed and adapted since the end of the Slave Trade.
This wooden door shows the imaginative skills of Europeans and American colo African American carvers.
There is disagreement about the end of the slave trade.
The supply of slaves to European merchants was not affected by the fact that some African societies began to export other commodities, such as peanuts, cotton, and palm oil, which made their dependence on the slave trade less important.
The British plantation economies were booming from 1790 to 1830, and plantations in Cuba, Brazil, and the southern United States flourished in the decades that followed.
It is difficult to find a direct link between economic self-interest and the movement to suppress the slave trade.
The mid-18th century saw the emergence of opponents of slavery and the trade in the West.
Rousseau and Smith both wrote against it.
The enslavement of "barbarians" or nonbelievers was seen as a way to civilize others during the European Enlight enment and bourgeois revolution.
The slave trade was criticized the most.
It was the epitome of slavery's inhumanity.
The end of the slave trade depended on England's maritime power.
The British movement gained strength against the West Indies interests.
The British slave trade was abolished in 1807.
Britain tried to impose abolition of the slave trade on other countries in the Atlantic.
The British navy captured illegal slave ships in order to enforce agreements between Spain and Portugal to suppress the trade.
By the 19th century, the moral and intellectual justifications that supported the age of the slave trade had worn thin and the movement to abolish slavery was growing in the Atlantic world.
The great slave revolt in the French Caribbean that resulted in the independence of Haiti impressed both the masters and the slaves in other countries.
The issue was complicated by the U.S. Civil War.
The end of slavery in the Americas occurred in Brazil in 1888.
The legacy of the slave trade era was slow to die in the 20th century as forced labor continued in Africa under Euro pean direction.